The Levels Of Processing Model
The Levels OF Processing (LOP) Model is an alternative to the Multi
Store (MS) Model. It does appreciate the idea that both STM and LTM do
exist however it does focus on the inter- related processes needed for
memory. It looks at the way information is coded and how likely it is
to be remembered depending on the type of coding.
* The LOP model was based on a study by Craik & Tulving (1875) who
tested participants on remembering 4 different types of
information. These were called "Levels of Processing. They claimed
that the level information is processed at, accounts for how
likely it is to be remembered. The 4 levels are as followed:
* · Shallowest e.g. Distinguishing between TABLE and table - which
is written in Capital letters? This requires very little
declarative memory. This type of information is only consciously
recalled at a very young age and once the procedure is learnt, we
do not have to think about the question being asked. Therefore
this is known as the shallowest level of processing.
* · Phonemic e.g. which word sounds like wait? - Hate or Chicken.
Here we are using our echoic sense to understand what the question
is asking, once again a very logical question.
* · Semantic e.g. which out of the following is a food - Cheese or
steel? This requires slight more intelligence as your mind has to
understand which one of the words is a food. Once your mind has
established the difference between the two items, it understands
that cheese is the food.
* · Deeper Semantic e.g. "He kicked the _ _ _ _ into the tree" -
fill in the missing word. This is the hardest level of processing.
The person taking the test has to understand what kicked and tree
means and put an appropriate word into the sentence. This uses
deep semantic memory.
* According to Craik and Lockhart rehearsal was not as essential as
LOP. They distinguished between two types of LOP - Simple
Maintenance Rehearsal which simply holds information but does not
necessarily lead to the transfer into LTM as information is just
memorised, and Elaborative Rehearsal which involves some kind of
analysis or evaluation of information. This type...