The Major Human Resource Management Functions
Private and public sector are vitally concerned with productivity and cost-effectiveness in managing resources. Human resource department in most organizations act in a staff capacity by giving advice and performing services for supervisors and employee. In most organizations, human resources department establishes policies and coordinates functions that are as follow
1. Job Analysis and Design
Job analysis deals with the determination of specific tasks and responsibilities common to a job or class of jobs as well as identifying the skills, knowledge and abilities that a person holding the job should possess. This information is vital in the development and validation of the selection devices such as application blanks, structured interviews and tests designed to measure an applicant’s ability to perform a job. Properly designed performance appraisal also depends on thorough job analysis. Job analysis information is also important in the design of equitable pay structures, training programs and health and safety programs.
Job designing involves structuring the work so that it can be performed efficiently while providing the employee with a feeling of satisfaction or reward.
2. Personnel/ Human Resource Planning
Personnel job planning involves placing the right person in the right job at the right time. Organizations often have fluctuating needs for employees. Nearly all organizations experience employee turnover due to resignations, retirements and discharges. Most organizations have annual turnover rate of less than 5 percent, but occasionally turnover is much higher.
Employees also move from one department or job to another by way of promotions and transfer. Firms add and delete product lines, expand some business units and divest others, all of that means that employee may be transferred, promoted or suffers layout. At any one time, an organization may find out that it has a shortage of employees with certain job skills and excess of other. Unless organizations are able to project future staffing needs and make provisions to have on hand a sufficient number of employees whose knowledge, skills and abilities can meet his demands, serious problems may arise.
The personnel planning process involves three essential steps. First, a supply and demand forecast for each job category is being made. Second, net shortages and excess of personnel by job category are projected for a specific time horizon. Finally, plans are developed to eliminate the forecast shortages and excess.
The careful use of a systematic personnel planning program enables the personnel department to forecast needs, plans for employee succession, staff critical areas and allow the organization to meet its goals without unnecessary disruptions caused by shortage of personnel.
3. Recruitment and Selection of Employees
Recruitment involves assembling a pool of applicants from which employees may be selected. Public and private employment...