The Manifesto of the Communist Party
Drafted in 1848 by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, the “Manifesto of the Communist Party” outlines the views, tendencies, and aims of the communist party through the so-called philosophy of historical materialism (Distante). These views were expressed throughout four distinct sections of the “Manifesto of the Communist Party.” The first section describes the relationship between the bourgeois and the proletarians. The next section depicts the relationship between the proletarians and the communists. The third section of the document presents socialist and communist literature. The “Manifesto…” is ended with a section stating the position of the communists in relation to opposition parties.
The first section begins with a brief history of the bourgeois in various societies. Marx shows that like earlier civilizations, the bourgeois, or modern capitalists and employers, has oppressed the proletarian class, or the working class of the society. Comparisons are made regarding ancient Rome as well as the middle ages with the modern bourgeois. Marx claims that the “modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society [….] It has but established new classes, new conditions of oppression (Marx).”
During the feudal period, the feudal lords monopolized industry. As time progressed, this system was insufficient for the growing needs of the nation. A new manufacturing system took the place of the monopoly system and soon provided for the natural evolution of the capitalist class. Due to increased work and efficiency, the markets continued to grow to the point that even the manufacturing system was not sufficient. Industrial revolutions including steam and machinery would soon change the face of industry. This industrial revolution made many of the once middle class business owners into millionaire tycoons.
As the bourgeois advanced financially, they also gained political influence. They progressed from a once oppressed class to an independent urban republic. As their political influence increased, certain changes became clear. The bourgeois had “torn away from the family its sentimental veil, and has reduced the family relation to a mere money relation (Marx).” This force eventually grew to the point that it was able to force other nations to conform to its values and methods or suffer extinction. As the bourgeois became richer, the proletarians began to suffer more. The balance of property began to shift even more rapidly than before leaving property “concentrated…in a few hands (Marx).” Eventually, the super-efficient production of the manufacturing economy began to take its toll on the bourgeois as well as the proletarians. More goods were produced due to the cheaper costs and ease of manufacture leading to an over-production of goods (Marxism). Over-production became a serious problem, resulting with widespread...