The Various Forms of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God
The cosmological argument is a well established argument for the
existence of God and it is also known as the first cause argument.
The cosmological argument is based upon the belief that there is a
first cause behind the existence of universe and this was God. It has
taken many forms and in the past has been presented in many ways. So
many philosophers have put their points across, philosophers like;
Plato, Aquinas, Socrates, Hume, Kant and many more.
The first person to put their point across was Plato. He argued that
the power to produce the movements plausibly comes before the power to
receive it and pass it on. In order for the movement to occur in the
first place, there must be an uncaused cause to instigate the
movement. He said this was the ‘First Cause’ or ‘First Mover’.
The most popular version was developed by the infamous St Thomas
Aquinas; he developed the five ways to prove the existence of God. The
first three of his five ways act as a proof to god’s existence. The
ways are motion, cause and contingency.
The first way is based upon motion. According to Aquinas there must
have been a first or a mover, which itself was unmoved. The Unmoved
mover began the movement in everything without actually being moved.
Thus, resulting in God being that mover.
According to Aquinas, an object only moved when an external force was
applied to it. He sustained that objects only changed because some
external force had brought about the change.
In Aquinas’s second way he identified a series of causes and effects
in the universe and he observed that nothing can be the cause of
itself, as this would mean that it would have had to exist before it
existed. He rejected an infinite series of causes and believed that
there must have been a first, uncaused, cause.
Thomas Aquinas's third way acknowledged the unforeseen event of matter
in the universe. On the basis of the fact that the things come into
existence and later cease to exist, he concluded that there must have
been a time when nothing existed. Therefore the universe must have
always existed. He also said that if god didn’t exist then nothing
Another argument that came about was the Kalam version. The first part
of the argument states the following; the present would not exist in
an actual infinite universe because successive additions cannot be
held to an actual infinite, the present does exist as the result of a
chronological series of past events, the universe must be infinite, a
finite universe had a beginning, whatever began to exist had a cause
as things cannot cause themselves, therefore the universe had a first
cause of its existence, this first cause had to be god.
William Lane Craig developed a modern version of the Kalam...