The Side Effects Of Mx Essay

1000 words - 4 pages

Hitherto, MS has no cure; however, many treatments have been approved by the Food and Drug Admission (FDA) to manage the disease. The treatments are applied for several purposes. They might be disease-modifying treatments, which delay the progression of MS or the occurrence of further attacks. Additionally, they might be for symptom management, where symptom-specific medications are prescribed to alleviate a certain symptom. Conversely, those treatments do not reverse the damage that has already occurred in the nerves. In spite of the noteworthy effects of these treatments, many of them interfere with the immune system and weaken it, which has a substantial risk upon the patients' health. One of these treatments is Mitoxantrone (MX), which is known in the market as Novantrone. It is a disease-modifying agent which delays the disability progression, the number of relapses and reduces the number of new lesions. Before it was approved to treat MS, it was administrated to treat specific forms of cancer. Only the types of MS with aggressively worsening symptoms or with more severe and frequent relapses are treated by MX; nonetheless, it has not been approved to treat PPMS. The side effects of MX range from minor temporary side effects to life-threatening Cardiotoxicity and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML).

Patients being treated with MX might suffer temporary side effects that are caused by the treatment's nature or interference with the immune system. MX is a chemotherapeutic drug; thus, many side effects that cancer patients undergo due to receiving chemotherapy are seen in MS patients treated with MX. Such side effects are alopecia, nausea and menses disorders in female patients. Menses disorders could be menstrual cycle changes or transitory amenorrhea, which at times becomes permanent. These side effects are temporary and would disappear as the body adapts to the medication. In addition, MX has a dark-blue color, which causes discoloration of the sclera to appear bluish and urine to become blue-green for an interval of 24 hours after the drug infusion. Since MS is an autoimmune disease, many of the treatments used to treat MS are immunosuppressant drugs. MX is one of these drugs. It destructs the DNA of the T-cells and B-cells preventing them from propagating. Deteriorating the immune system exposes the body to infections; therefore, patients receiving MX ought to avoid people with infections and receiving immunization with a living virus unless a doctor approves it. If the patients are experiencing pyrexia or chills, dyspnea or cough, mouth sore, lumbago or side pain, gastralgia, swelling of the legs and feet, painful urination or black, tarry feces, they are obliged to report it to a physician. In brief, MX induces various temporary side effects, but only those which become persistent or indicating an infection are the ones to be reported to a doctor.

MX-induced cardiomyopathy include reduction of the left ventricular ejection fraction...

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