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The Medieval Migrations Of The Muslims And Vikings

1483 words - 6 pages

The movement and migrations of people groups had a major impact on medieval history. Two major medieval migrations that altered the history of the medieval world were the Muslim migration into the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th century and the Mongol migration into Eurasia the 12th century.
Arthur Keith, a Scottish anthropologist, once wrote, “Tolerance is held to be a condition of mind which is encouraged by, and is necessary for, civilization. ” In other words, creating a tolerant culture is vital for the survival of society. This need is magnified in a culture involving numerous ethnic and religious ties; a need that was well understood by the Muslims and Mongolians. While ...view middle of the document...

This infuriated Julian and he vowed to avenge his daughter by overthrowing Roderic. He approached Tariq ibn Ziyad, governor of the Tangiers in N. Africa, for help in conquering the peninsula . Whether this is the actual reasoning for the Muslim migration remains debated, but there is little arguing that religion played a major role. The Muslims believed that they must spread the religion of Islam to all corners of the globe. This expansionist philosophy explains how they were able to conquer Northern Africa so quickly. The Iberian Peninsula was the closest and most logical location to Northern Africa and represented a fantastic opportunity to spread Islam into Europe. The Muslims were known for their rapid expansions. In a mere 3 years, the Muslims were able to carve out their own Islamic settlement in Europe on the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus, mostly through peaceful takeovers.
The Islamic expansion never reached mainland Europe due to the efforts of Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours in 732-733 . However, the kingdom of Al-Andalus was still able to have a significant religious, ethnic, and cultural impact on the Iberian Peninsula. The Muslims treated their subjects much more favorably than the prior Visigoths. The Quran, which is the holy book of Islam, outlines how to approach interfaith relations, stating, “They are not all the same; among the followers of the scripture [that is, Jews and Christians as well as Muslims], there are those who are righteous…They believe in God and the Last Day, the advocate righteousness and forbid evil, and they hasten to do righteous works. ” Islam respected the role of the Christians, Jews, and fellow Muslims as “people of the book” because of their shared worship of an almighty God. This reverence towards the other two monotheistic religions, Christianity and Judaism, served as a model of treatment in later Muslim settlements like Al-Andalus
Muslim leaders worked to create a solution to dealing with the different religious groups by forming the Dhimmi. According to the Pact of Umar, which was a peace offering from the Caliph Umar to the Syrian Christians, the Dhimmi were a class of citizens who were required to pay an extra tax. Some of the provisions required the Dhimmi to house Muslim travelers, not build any new religious centers, not teach the Quran to their children, not mimicking the Muslim style of dress, and not bear arms . In essence, the Dhimmi accepted being subordinate to the Muslims in exchange for the ability to practice their religion in private. Outside of these rules, the Dhimmi were able to live comfortably in a Muslim society and become an important member of Al-Andalus’s social hierarchy. Therefore, the Pact of Umar became the model for Muslim treatment of differing nations, including Iberian Peninsula, and even can be seen in Muslim relations today.
The open and reasonable nature of the pact fostered the interaction of Muslims and indigenous people...

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