The Fourth Meditation starts with the meditator reflecting on the conclusions of previous Meditations. At this point, the meditator is certain that “God” exists and that the knowledge of God’s existence comes from the meditator’s intellect and certainly not his imagination or the five senses. Moreover, the meditator states that his own existence depends upon the God and therefore there is nothing else besides the God that the human mind is able to grasp with more evidence and certainty. Now, such a conclusion leads to further questions regarding the possibility of error.
The idea of perfectness is that there is no error- and that everything is good. This begs the question that if God is perfect, then the meditator says there should be no deception because in theory God would not allow it. This is because deception implies presence of imperfection and that is something which is not found in God. Therefore, the human capacity for judging- given by the God, should not lead to falsehood and deception; which in reality is not the case.
So now, the meditator tries to provide a solution which says humans are an intermediary being i.e. a being that is between the two extremities. On one extreme, there is God, a perfect and complete being while on the opposite extreme is nothingness. This makes humans a finite being that participates in both the goodness in God and nothingness. In effect, the act of falsehood by humans is merely a participation in nothingness and not the result of faulty faculty given by the God. The lack of perfection in humans therefore results in err and is independent of God.
The meditator however is not satisfied with the above conclusion and muses why God, despite being a perfect being, simply did not create humans to be perfect as well. Because considering the nature of God, he would not give humans a faculty that leads them to error. The meditator however concedes that he, being a finite being, might never be able to comprehend the reasons and motives behind such limitations. The meditator further states that since his nature is...