The Microbiology Of The Vibrio Cholerae Bacterium

1573 words - 6 pages

The Microbiology of the Vibrio cholerae Bacterium

Abstract
Cholera is a deadly disease that has caused a worldwide phenomenon throughout history. Its imperative weapon, the Vibrio cholerae bacterium, has allowed cholera to seize control and wipe out a huge percentage of the human population. V. cholerae’s toxins are the primary causes of cholera’s lethal symptoms. The bacterium contains toxins that help it accomplish its job of invading the human system and defeating the body’s powerful immune system. With its sibling bacterium Escherichia coli, V. cholerae has become one of the most dominant pathogens in the known world. V. cholerae’s strategies in causing the infamous deadly diarrhea have been widely studied, from the irritation of the intestinal epithelium to the stimulation of capillary leakage, as well as the internal effects of the disease such as the Peyer’s patches on the intestinal walls. Overall, the Vibrio cholera bacterium has made cholera a tough disease to overcome, and because of its deadly virulence factors, cholera has become one of the most frightening diseases a human body could ever encounter.

Introduction
Cholera is a diarrheal illness in the intestinal tract caused by the gram negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Vibrio cholerae is a member of the family vibrionaceae and of the genus Vibrio, which are fresh, brackish, or saltwater dwelling anaerobes that have the ability to ferment. Vibrios are highly halophilic, which means that they need salt-rich environment in order to thrive. They are usually rod-shaped and are either straight or curved, and are very sensitive to acid. Vibrios are motile organisms that travel with a single flagellum, and depend on saccharose sugar and starch for their growth and development. They use fermentative or respiratory metabolism and are heterotrophic, which means that they are not able to create their own food. Instead, vibrios obtain food through mutualistic, parasitic, and pathogenic relationships with their chosen host.
(Finkelstein. Par 13-15.)
The Cholera Toxins and Cell Receptor Binding
Vibrio cholerae generates several toxins that are perilous to eukaryotic cells. The toxin that causes the diarrheal disease cholera is the cholera enterotoxin called choleragen (CT). It has A and B subunit toxins: toxin A is responsible for enzymatic and intracellular functions, while toxin B is responsible for binding the toxin to the eukaryotic cell receptor. The cholera enterotoxin (CT) has been shown to have biological similarities with the Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT), and is similar to the E.coli enterotoxin in both structure and function. Both enterotoxins have helical structures and three-stranded, antiparallel pleated sheets, as well as a disulfide bond that connects the N and C terminal halves of the monomer. The tryptophan in subunit toxin B is vital in receptor binding. Tryptophan is stimulated by a cysteine component, and is delivered to the eukaryotic cell membrane by...

Find Another Essay On The Microbiology of the Vibrio cholerae Bacterium

The Effects of the Plague Essay

1320 words - 5 pages . “The epidemic ravaged the population for the next five years, killing more than 20 million people in Europe, almost one third of the continent’s population” (Plague, 2). Yersinia Pestis is a bacterium found in fleas that can be transferred to host rats and can eventually be spread to humans. Antibiotics, immunizations, and other medical treatments weren’t available during the Middle Ages, so there was not an effective cure for the plague

The Realism of the Film The Battle of The Somme

1904 words - 8 pages The Realism of the Film The Battle of The Somme The film 'The Battle of The Somme' was released in Londonon the 10th of August 1916, it was a famous documentary that was filmed by Geoffrey Malins and J.B. McDowell. They were one of the first groups of cameramen to film the British soldiers on the Battlefields of the Western Front. They helped the government to produce a video, to show people that War wasn't as bad as it

The Strength of the Fist, The Power of the Heart

1150 words - 5 pages Without the ability to confront fears or trials or understand the suffering of others, any man or woman would be fragmented at best. Every human, every warrior, and every humanitarian is built to live with both a great deal of courage and compassion. These unique traits are two sides of the same coin that cannot be overlooked or undervalued. The ability to embrace people complete with all sorts of strengths, weaknesses, failures, faiths, and

The rape of the lock

1666 words - 7 pages The mock epic is a poetic form which uses the epic structure but on a miniature scale and has a subject that is mean or trivial. The purpose of a mock-heroic or mock-epic poem is satirical. The writer makes the subject look ridiculous by placing it in a framework entirely inappropriate to its importance. Pope's description of The Rape of the Lock as a heroi-comical poem misled some readers into thinking that the comic attack was intended against

the name of the rose

663 words - 3 pages The Name of the Rose “The Name of the Rose” is by Jean-Jacques Annaud, it came out on September 24th 1986 in the United States. The settings of the movie is in Benedictine abbey in North Italy during the year 1327. The movie is about an intellectual monk who investigates a series of mysterious deaths in an isolated abbey. The film says a lot about the influence of the Roman Catholic Churches and gives us an idea how literature was

THE RISE OF THE PAPACY

1720 words - 7 pages Introduction Early in history, the Roman papacy consolidated its power. It became one of the most influential organizations in the medieval period. This rise to power resulted from the decline in the Western Empire, the leadership of Roman bishops, and special grants that gave the church land holdings. This rise to power caused some positive ramifications, such as the protection of the church from heresy. However, the absolute power of the

The Mystery of the Pyramids

5114 words - 20 pages Why ask why the Great Pyramid was built? Because it is the most massive building on the planet, at least twice the volume and thirty times the mass of the Empire State Building. Because it is aligned to the true cardinal points of the compass even though no compass is known to have existed at its time of construction. Because its masonry which weighs up to seventy tons is joined to the fiftieth of an inch. Because its casing stones were polished

The Lord of the Flies

1316 words - 5 pages In the book Lord of the Flies, at the end of the book, it said that “Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of a true, wise friend called Piggy”. This quote is very important and tells us the theme of this nasty novel. The Lord of the Flies is an allegorical novel and it is about schoolboys (aged thirteen and under) who was stranded on an island without adult supervision. At

The Truth of the Gospel

1723 words - 7 pages When people hear the word “gospel,” they typically associate it with the Bible, and for a variety of people this is the extent of their biblical knowledge. While numerous people instinctively turn their heads away at the mention of religion, their assumptions of the Gospels as boring, stuffy orders to obey God are often incorrect. Sure, most people would find more excitement and pleasure reading a Harry Potter book instead of the Bible, but

The lord of the flies

1389 words - 6 pages Symbolism in Lord of the Flies To help his readers gain a better understanding of the message in his novel Lord of the Flies, William Golding uses the literary tool symbolism. He uses this tool liberally in two important areas, those being objects and people. This novel incorporates countless symbols, but this paper will discuss some of the most widely recognized ones, beginning with the objects. Golding uses symbolic objects to

The Cell of the Human

2960 words - 12 pages The cell is the smallest unit in the structural hierarchy of life that does every work needed for life (Reec, Urry, Cain, Minorsky, Jackson & Wasserman, 2009). This cell works with other cells in a system to perform other complex process by dividing the functions of performing the complex work to groups of cells. For instance, the process of moving the eyes of the readers while reading this research happens because the activity of the muscle and

Similar Essays

Vibrio Cholerae, The Human Immune System, And Vaccines

1591 words - 6 pages washed with contaminated water. Cholera is caused by a gram-negative, rod shaped bacterium called Vibrio cholerae which can be further classified into two separate biotypes (El Tor and classical) and multiple other serotypes. Once inside the body, V. cholerae attaches and adapts itself to the mucosal epithelial lining of the intestines then produces an exotoxin, cholera toxin (CT), which disrupts the normal flow of ions between the bloodstream

Historical Past Of The Bacterium Salmonella Bacilli

1119 words - 4 pages The Life of Salmonella Abstract: The following paper discusses the historical past of the bacterium Salmonella Bacilli and its repercussions within infected human victims over time. There are two types of salmonella: nontyphoidal and typhoidal. Both are borne through direct contact with an infected host’s feces bacterium which in turn, is ingested orally. Their way of life exists within the digestive tract of its host, reproducing rapidly

The Father Of Microbiology And The Microscope

604 words - 2 pages that expanded the scientific knowledge of their day. Their respective discoveries overturned traditional beliefs and widely accepted theories, and conclusions made by both men were met with skepticism by the both their colleagues and the public. Leeuwenhoek was more fortunate that Galileo in the sense that his discoveries were accepted within his lifetime and he was able to enjoy the praises of his peers. In his latter years Leeuwenhoek was elected to the Royal Society of England in recognition of his work. His work set the foundations for bacteriology and protozoology earning him the title, "The Father of Microbiology".

The Impact Of Cholera In Zambia, Africa

2013 words - 8 pages (Cowan, Bunn, & Herzog, 2013). Zambia has been a prime target for this disease due to it's annual floods, poverty and poor sanitation (UNICEF, 2010). Etiology, Virulence and Transmission The etiology of Cholera primarily stems from an individual consuming drinking water or food that is contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae which in turn causes an infection of the intestines (CDC, 2013). The source of the contamination is usually from