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The Mircobiology Department: What Is Studied, Tested, And Used

2038 words - 9 pages

Microbiology Department
Introduction
A Microbiology department deals with micro-organisms. These microorganisms are too small and they can only be seen by microscopes. A micro-organism is smaller than a red blood cell and they are the oldest form of life on earth.
Pathogen is a biological agent that causes disease to its host and pathogen. Pathogen can pass disease to unicellular organisms that belong to biological kingdoms.
There are some organisms that can cause infectious diseases. Infectious disease is a disease that caused by a micro-organism (viruses, bacteria and fungus) that enters the body of an organism. This disease can spread from one person to another person. Infectious bacteria can spread via air, bodily fluids, food, drinks and touch. There are different types of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Chickenpox, E.coli, Influenza and measles.

Types of microorganism
Bacteria
Bacterium is single-cell microorganisms. There are 5 billion bacteria on the earth. Bacteria can take the form of three shapes such as Spherical (Coccus), Rod shaped (Bacillus) and Spiral.

There is no internal membrane structure in bacteria, for an example nuclei, mitochondria and lysosomes. In bacterium, there are genomes which are circular shaped, double stranded DNA that is quite related to eukaryotic genomes. Bacteria can reproduce by dividing and growing and this process is known as Binary fission. Some bacteria get their energy by sun and some get their energy by oxidizing inorganic compound. Some bacteria generate energy by breaking down organic compounds for example, amino acid and sugars. There are bacteria that need oxygen in to produce energy but bacteria can reproduce with or without oxygen.

Bacterial Structure
There are capsule, cell wall, cell membrane, plasmid and ribosomes in bacterium. The capsule protects against the attack of white blood cells and helps bacteria to stick together in order to bioform. The cell wall of bacterium has a rigid structure that retains the shape of the bacterial cell which is made of polysaccharide. The cell membrane is semi permeable so it controls what goes in and out. In the plasmid, there is genetic information. The plasmid is circular in shape as shown in the picture below. Ribosome is the side of protein synthesis.

Fungi
A fungus is a single celled microorganism. They can be found in any habitat such as soil, plant or sea. Fungi digest other organisms in order to obtain energy and nutrients. Fungus has external digestion so they grow their food by secreting enzyme outside their cell and absorb by breaking down the products. Fungi do this because of their thread-like growth form. Fungus cells grow as extremely thin threads which are known as Hyphae. Fungus has three different ways to obtain food known as saprobic, parastitic and mycorrhizal. Saprobic fungi are decomposers that live on dead organic material from other fungi. Parastitic fungi use living organisms as a food source and causes diseases in...

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