Challenges due to poverty could be addressed by providing financial assistance, food, and clothing. Time spent with parents is essential when dealing with children who have behavioral issues because parents or guardians may not have the funds or time to spend with their children due to other obligations needed to support the family. Parents and guardians play a major role in helping children grow and develop to their fullest potential. As children grow, they depend on their parents or guardians for basic needs and support such as food, shelter, education, protection, and care. During their life difficulties and times of crisis, they depend on family for guidance. Mental disorders in childhood and adolescence can be chronic, require proper attention, help, and support from caregivers and teachers as well. Parents and guardians living with children with mental illness disorders have additional responsibilities and roles to care for them as they do for healthy children. The best way to help those families are to have them participate in their own income generating activities such as respite services or programs accepted by Medicaid where they receive counseling from social workers or other healthcare professional. Pelham et al. (2007) found that using a cost of illness (COI) framework examines the economic impact of ADHD in childhood and adolescences and identified studies; therefore, most conducted on existing databases by using diagnostic and medical procedure codes focused on health care costs. The costs were examined for ADHD treatment and other health care costs, education, parental work loss, and juvenile justice. According to Pelham et al. (2007), this incomplete evidence base estimated that annual COI of ADHD in children and adolescents at about $14,576 per individual and using a prevalence rate of 5%, a conservative estimate of the annual societal COI for ADHD in childhood and adolescence is $42.5 billion, with a range between $36 billion and $52.4 billion. As discussed, this misdiagnosis affects families and schools, but the funding to provide those children with medications and treatments are affected as well due to the high cost per child.
This paper critiques the theory that underlies teacher referral for ADHD diagnosis and the variables of misdiagnosing children with ADHD as it relates to the psychological, emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents, guardians, and teachers experience when caring for mentally ill children. My overall strategy for doing this research is to determine how many elementary school children are misdiagnosed with ADHD due to those issues. The conceptual model that frames the view of this theory is that teachers initiate the ADHD assessment process by identifying inattention, hyperactive and/or impulsive behaviors demonstrated by a student on a more frequently basis than others. Once the behaviors are identified, a referral for ADHD diagnosis is often...