Abortion is the termination of the unborn as a result of its physical destruction. The three types of abortion consist of therapeutic abortion, spontaneous abortion and elective abortion. Therapeutic abortion is an abortion done for reasons regarding the health of the mother. A spontaneous abortion is a miscarriage, a fetus being expelled before it is physically able to live under normal conditions outside the uterus on its own. This especially happens between the third and seventh months of pregnancy. Elective abortion a voluntary termination of the unborn before viability at the request of the mother. In an elective abortion, reasons are not related to the concerns of the health of the mother or fetus.
There are many questions regarding abortion. However, all the legal and moral questions can be summed into two simple questions. The legal question asks, at what point should the state get involved? Whereas the moral question asks, does the unborn possess moral consideration? The question of moral status in philosophy is strictly concerned with elective abortion. Moral status is the moral implication of how you treat a particular thing. The question then asked is: What is the moral status of the unborn?
Those who believe the unborn has no moral status believe abortion is morally acceptable at any time, at any place for any reason and any circumstances. Those who believe the unborn has a limited moral status believe abortion is morally acceptable under most conditions and circumstances. Those who believe the unborn has established moral status believe abortion is
almost never permissible except under extreme circumstances. Those who believe the unborn has an absolute moral status believe abortion is never morally acceptable under any circumstances. Others suggest inanimate objects have no moral status, but living things do. For example, to cut a paper in half does not have the same reaction as cutting a human in half. However, it can be fought that biological life does not equal moral status.
The criteria to be classified as a living thing suggest that a living thing must be able to take in food and nourishment, be able to excrete waste, respond to stimuli otherwise known as external conditions (i.e. plant growing toward the sun; shivering when cold to warm up), have the capacity for growth and have the ability to maintain homeostasis-internal balance (i.e. craving salt when thirsty, eating the salt, and the salt making us realize we are thirsty). However, arguments such as killing a roach and washing our hands to kill bacteria fight this argument. Bacteria are living, therefore, should bacteria have moral consideration and we should not wash our hands?
There are many arguments on abortion, but the top four most critical arguments are, the argument form potentiality, the bodily rights argument, the negative social impact argument and the argument of deprivation of the future.
The argument from potentiality states, every human has a right to...