Al-ʾIkḫwān al-Muslimūn or the Muslim Brotherhood is an organization that strives for an Islamic world. Since its beginnings, members have become involved in politics and in their communities, but their methods have been constantly questioned. Their influence has become worldwide with groups in several countries across the world ,and it is in Egypt where the organization began.
Beginnings in Egypt
The Muslim Brotherhood began in March 1928 by Hasan al-Banna, an egyptian teacher, after seven of his friends agreed that al-Bana should lead them in better serving Allah. After their request, he accepted, and he along with Hafiz Abdul Hamid, Ahmad Al Hasri, Fowad Ibrahim, Abdur Rehman, Hasabullah, Ismail Izz, and Zaki Al Maghribi swore their allegiance to Al Ikwanul Muslemoon(The Muslim Brotherhood) becoming the first members. Jihad would also become their means to spread Islam(Rinehart 2009: 966). The Brotherhood’s mission was to restore the Islamic Caliphate which was destroyed in 1924 by Turkish President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Their motto, “Allah is our objective. The Prophet is our leader. The Koran is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope,” is still in use today, and the group wants to spread Islam worldwide(Lebl 2013: 109).
Al-Bana wanted people to come back to the faith(da’wah) and urged they had an overall renewal(Frampton 2013: 832). Soon after, al-Bana gained a reputation as an iman which he later encouraged his followers to call him by. He told stories of when Allah saved him from his troubles and demanded that he be called a murshid(teacher of spirituality). Al-Bana was a very gifted speaker, so gaining members and their obedience was not problem. He had a story for each person that was given to them in a specific manner that suited them, and while moving up in the social structure of the Muslim Brotherhood, members had to give more and more obedience to al-Bana than to the Egyptian government(Rinehart 2009: 966-67).
The Brotherhood’s relationship with the Egyptian governments has always been challenging with the Egyptian authorities(Frampton 2013: 832). After the start of the Brotherhood, al-Bana wrote a letter to King Fuad in 1933 and another to King Farouk and the royalty of Islam in 1936. In the letters, he told them to turn from Western ways and return to Islam, but both letters were ignored. Later in 1937, after the Wafdists were dismissed from the Palace due to conflict, al- Bana openly admitted that he had little faith in the Palace government being a better solution for Egypt than the Wafdists. Then the Brotherhood condemned the Wafdist government on March 3, 1938 after finding out that the Palace would provide for them financially and politically(Rinehart 2009: 960).
They played lip service to King Farouk in order to receive special treatment from him. They greeted him in Cairo after he escaped an accident and even sent him a telegram wishing him a happy birthday, but later criticized...