In Ernest Hemingway's short story, "A Clean Well-Lighted Place", the concept of
nada is the central and most important theme. As described by Carlos Baker, Nada is "a
Something called Nothing which is so huge, terrible, overbearing, inevitable, and
omnipresent that, once experienced, it can never be forgotten" (Baker 124). It is a
metaphysical state that symbolizes the chaos in everyone's lives. Some people have it
more than others and some deal with this idea differently that others. Either way, nada is
an uncontrollable force that should never be forgotten.
Steven Hoffman, believes that "the only way to approach the Void is to develop a
very special mode of being, the concrete manifestation of which is the clean, well-lighted
place" (Hoffman 176). This cafe is a warrior against this nothingness. The place is clean,
pleasant, and orderly. There is no music. It is a plain and simple refuge against the lonely,
dark world that awaits outside (Hemingway 256). However, this cafe must close at some
time or another thus proving that the cafe isn't enough to combat the nada. It is not even
a place but an artificial, man-made building that tries to fight against this real idea of nada.
If one has the internal qualities, cleanliness and inner vision, they can cope with the
nothingness even outside of the cafe. The old waiter is a prime example. At times the old
man lacks these qualities thus not being able to cope with the darkness. On the other
hand, the young waiter has no concept of this idea thus making him not even realize how
powerful it can be.
The old waiter is the most important character in "A Clean Well-Lighted Place."
The old waiter has completely grasped the concept of nada and is able to deal with it.
Hemingway says," What did he fear? It was not fear or dread. It was a nothing that he
knew too well. It was all a nothing and a man was a nothing too...Some lived in it and
never felt it but he knew it all..." (258). It was him that recognizes the old man's problem
from the beginning. He realizes that this man is dealing with the most difficult part of his
life, the end. Also, the old man's parody of the Lord's prayer clearly shows that he has
grasped this concept of nada. No one else could use the term this way and not know
what it means. Also, Even though the old waiter has plenty of money, he realizes that this
is not all he needs to escape the darkness. Nothing can escape it.
Unlike the old man, the waiter deals with this darkness in a more positive way.
Hoffman says,"...this character displays true metaphysical courage in raising the concept
of nada..." (Hoffman 185). The old waiter says, "I am one of those who like to stay late
at the cafe....With all those who do not want to go to bed. With all those who need a light
for the night....Each night I am reluctant to close up because there may be some one who
needs the cafe" (Hemingway 258). The light,...