The Federal Response Plan was created in 1992 to “establish a process and structure for the systematic, coordinated, and effective delivery of Federal assistance to address the consequences of any major disaster or emergency declared under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act” (Federal Response Plan, 2003). Hurricane Andrew put the FRP to the test, but due to the unfamiliarity of the plan the response was ineffective. The FRP was later changed to the National Response Plan in 2004 to enable a conjoined (federal, state and local) response plan. The NRP was “a concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States; reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, major disasters, and other emergencies; and minimize the damage and recover from attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies that occur” (2004, National Response Plan). Four years later the NRP was replaced by the National Response Framework to provide an all hazards response. The NRF integrated past experiences into a long term strategic response to thwart and interrupt terrorist activity, safeguard citizens and critical infrastructures and all other disasters.
On July 7th, 2005 London experienced the worst terrorist attack on British soil. At precisely 8:50 am, four suicide bombers created the first suicide attack in Europe. Three of the four bombers targeted and detonated themselves on London subway trains. The other bomber targeted and detonated himself in Tavistock Square on a commuter bus. The four detonations killed 56 people and injured 775 civilians. Two weeks later suicide bombers attempted to again bomb three trains in the subway and one commuter bus. The bombers were unsuccessl and fled the scene.
First responders executed a comprehensive, multifaceted and challenging response to the terrorist attack. “Responding agencies faced challenges during and immediately after the attacks, but major problems in emergency coordination were minimized because London officials had established relationships with one another and had practiced agreed-upon procedures. Consequently, everyone knew their roles and responsibilities; a command and control system was up and running quickly; and mutual aid agreements — planned out in advance — were successfully initiated and applied” (Strom & Eyerman, 2008). Responders face numerous challenges due to the synchronized attacks being in several locations of the subway station and in a complete other location.
Multiagency coordination creates one of the most significant challenges when responding to a terrorist attack. Communication was one of the major challenges first responders faced. First off there was communication errors when responders communicated with families of victims. Between several victims fleeing the scene after the attack and the lack of information relating to the victims where about lead to a mass...