Why Is There a Need for Development In Africa?
Since the dawn of the colonial era, the African continent has experienced numerous hardships on the pathway to economic and human development. High levels of poverty, disease, and inequality coupled with low levels of human development, education, and infrastructure has long gripped the continent and has stifled growth efforts (Gorton). An example of this extreme poverty lies in the African country of Uganda, where nearly 80% of its citizens could not afford food in 2012 (“Many in Developing Nations Struggle to Afford Food”). In addition, the quantity of hungry people in Africa grew from 1990-2012 from 175 million to 239 million, with one in four people facing undernourishment or various symptoms of starvation (“2013 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics by World Hunger Education Service”). As a struggling continent in the developing Global South, Africa justifies a desperate need for drastic increases in economic and human development in numerous respects.
Non-violent issues such as disease and the lack of a widespread, adequate education system certainly pose threats to the development of Africa. However, corruption and violence are two additional, prominent forces that continue to plague the continent as a whole (Shah). Because of the perpetual violence and elevated levels of corruption, Africa has produced over 9 million refugees and “internally displaced” people since 2000 (“By Origin Table”). Electoral corruption in a relatively unstable democratic system in Kenya is a prime example of such corruption experienced in Africa (Campbell).
The African continent as a whole faces substantial obstacles. Yet visions from China, the United States, and Africa continue to shape this continent in desperate need of development. The forward progress being made from international institutions, foreign investments, and nominal growth within the continent possesses the potential to overturn the struggling past and present states of Africa.
Agents and Institutions for Development in Africa
The African Development Bank- an international finance institution consisting of 78 African, European, South American, and North American member-nations- has been actively involved in economic development in Africa since 1964 and has been a dominant figure in development endeavors (“African Development Bank Group”). The mission of this institution is to “promote sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty in Africa” (“African Development Bank Group”). Specific appropriations of capital within the African Development Bank are in infrastructure, social, multisector, finance, agriculture and rural development, and industry, with a total cumulative loan and grant approval total from 1967-2012 registering $63,660,000,000 US dollars (“African Development Bank Group”). An example of such a loan was from 2008 to 2009, when the African Development Bank doubled its financial aid to the African continent in the wake...