Gilbert (2006) proposed five essential dimensions of being a leader are: integrity, authenticity and trust; values; providing directions; inspiration and empowerment; delivery objectives.
The inconsistency between government policy and backdrop of incredible change in healthy economy and global recession has casted a shadow influence of NHS service and staff development, making the need of effective leadership in the NHS has become explicitly important at national, regional and local level (Edmonstone & Western, 2002; Sherring, 2012). Leadership development itself needs to be well led to move up a gear to face the challenge of the future(Edmonstone & Western, 2002).
Prior to introducing a range of interconnected leadership theories, it is necessary to clarify the natures of the term ‘leadership theory’ and ‘style’.
Moiden (2002refernce) clarified that leadership theory implies reality while leadership style refers to how theories are performed in realities, which makes the process of implementing theories more flexible and selectable.
Early ‘ Great Man’ theory assumed that few people are born with genies and personalities of being leaders (Denmark1993), which is known as trait theory. Lord et al., (1986) meta-analyzed the results from Mann’s (1959) review of correlation between personality traits and leadership perceptions, confirmed that intelligence, masculinity-femininity, and dominance are fairly important in predicting team performance and leadership perceptions; however, this finding does not implies that traits will generally determine a superior performance. Multivariate prediction of leadership perceptions would be much more helpful (Lord et al., 1986). Zaccaro (2007) concluded that influences on leadership process and performance from leaders’ traits are integrated with situational parameters. Situational theory is subsequently developed with the belief that successful leadership is associated with leader’s ability to adapt to different situations by choosing appropriate leadership styles, implying a matter of situational demands (Jogulu & Wood, 2006a). Three predominant dimensions of leadership styles are: autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership style (Eagly & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001). Study by Kenmore (2008) analyzed leadership styles of 22 ward’s managers, revealing that affinitive and coaching were the most commonly used leadership styles; highly performing managers appear to switch between a wide range of leadership styles according various situations with a clear clarification of goals and every team members’ responsibility.
Early studies of leadership theory mainly concentrated on characters and behaviors of leaders, while contemporary theories have placed more emphasis on leadership process (加入书的referncence). Burn (1978) argued that previous analyses of leadership styles failed to explain important aspects of leadership effectiveness, which is defined by Eagly et al., (1995,...