The Nervous System of the Human Body
The nervous system of the human body is responsible for sending, receiving and processing nerve impulses. It controls the actions and sensations of all the parts of the human body as well as your thoughts, emotions and memories. The nervous system is a "speedy electrochemical communication system of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system". The most basic and important part in the usefulness of the Nervous System is the Neuron.
The neuron is the functional unit of the Nervous System consisting of 100 billion neurons in 1 human brain alone. While they vary in size and shape, all neurons have 3 identical parts that enable them to function. The first part of a neuron, the Cell Body, contains the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles which are all critical elements of a neurons character. Second, Dendrites, are the area of the neuron that receive information from other cells and transmit the message to the cell body, while the last element known as the Axon conducts messages away from the cell. These 3 specific areas are an important asset to the function of each neuron.
Each containing the previously listed areas of the neuron, there are three separate types of neurons occurring in the Nervous System. One being the Sensory neurons, which carry incoming messages from sensory receptors to the Central NS. Another, Motor neurons, transmit the outgoing messages from the Central NS to the body's muscles and glands. Although our nervous system has millions of sensory and motor neurons, it consists of billions of interneurons. Interneurons are found only in the Central NS where they connect neuron to neuron to provide communication throughout each cell.
Together these multiple systems help to make up one section of the Nervous System known as the Peripheral Nervous System. The Peripheral NS consists of the "sensory and motor neurons that connect the Central NS to the rest of the body". It consists of two components, the Somatic nervous system, which controls the movements of our skeletal muscles and the Automatic nervous system, which controls the glands and muscles of our internal organs. The automatic nervous system is a dual system that has influence over the heartbeat, digestion, and glandular activity. These two systems which make up the automatic NS are known as...