This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Neural Control Of The Kidneys

1117 words - 5 pages

The neural control of the kidneys is through the sympathetic nervous system, efferent renal sympathetic nerves innervation and neuroeffector junctions have been identified along the renal vasculature, the tubules, the granular cells of juxtaglomerular apparatus (Kate etal, 2004; Edward etal, 2011). The action of sympathetic system is via the release the norepinephrine at sympathetic nerve terminals into the interstitial space. A moderately high levels of nerve stimulation has more effect on efferent arteriole than afferent thereby the RBF fall more than the GFR in consistent with efferent arteriolar constriction, however at maximal nerve stimulation afferent vasoconstriction predominates ...view middle of the document...

Dopaminergic nerve fibers have been reported to terminate in the kidney, however the physiologic significance of these nerves is unclear (Sterns, 2013). Dopamine is synthesized within the kidney in the proximal tubule via the decarboxylation of circulating L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) by the enzyme L-amino acid decarboxylase and discharged into membrane into the lumen, where it bind to and activate specific dopaminergic receptors (Carey, 2001) . It acts locally to exert its actions in a paracrine and autocrine fashion and the major effects is increase in renal blood flow and natriuretic response. Dopamine receptors are classified into the D1 and the D2 subtype families, dopamine D1 receptor stimulation results in renal vasodilatation and natriuresis while dopamine D2 receptors may play a synergistic role in the dopamine modulated natriuresis (Cheung and Barrington, 1996).
L-DOPA is derives from the amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine and increased availability of these by protein diet intake will enhance intrarenal dopamine synthesis, thus it was hypothesised that the amino acid-induced glomerular hyperfiltration might due to increased dopamine secretion. In line with this, studies in human has demonstrated an increase in dopamine secretion after a high protein meal (WILLIAMS etal. 1986; Fukagawa etal, 1995) and administration of L-tyrosine in animal studies have also shown same effect
(Agharanya and Wurtman, 1982; Mühlbauer etal, 1997). In another animal study the infusion of amino acids containing L-tyrosine increased both GFR and renal dopamine excretion but the same solution without L-tyrosine increased GFR but not urinary dopamine output. Also the infusion of L-tyrosine alone increased renal dopamine excretion but not GFR (Mühlbauer etal 1997). From the result of their study, they suggested that
urinary dopamine does not play a significant role in the regulation of kidney function, renal innervation is essential in the GFR response to systemic amino acid infusion, and a dopaminergic mechanism apart from tubular dopamine excretion is involved as well. In line with this,

a study assessed the amino acid-induced glomerular hyperfiltration in association with dopaminergic mechanism in 12 healthy male volunteers. The subjects were administered with an electrolyte- balanced solution of mixed amino acid (10%) and their RBF and GFR were assessed by renal clearance of inulin and p-aminohippuric acid. The subjects were orally administered with either placebo, or sulpiride a central and peripheral acting dopamine like receptors antagonist, or domperidone...

Find Another Essay On The Neural Control of the Kidneys

The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition

1589 words - 6 pages The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition There are many theories that scientists, in-due circumstances, try to extrapolate as to why the brain goes through the ever-changing neuronal alterations that it goes through because of focused attention. One of these theories is one that many neuroscientists aptly call neuroplasticity: this theory, as some philosophers would have us to believe, goes against the current dogma of the

The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition

1313 words - 5 pages The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition There are many theories that scientists, in-due circumstances, try to extrapolate as to why the brain goes through the ever-changing neuronal alterations that it goes through because of focused attention. One of these theories is one that many neuroscientists aptly call neuroplasticity: this theory, as some philosophers would have us to believe, goes against the current dogma of the

The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition

1793 words - 7 pages The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition There are many theories that scientists, in-due circumstances, try to extrapolate as to why the brain goes through the ever-changing neuronal alterations that it goes through because of focused attention. One of these theories is one that many neuroscientists aptly call neuroplasticity. This theory, as some philosophers would have us to believe, goes against the current dogma of the

Schizophrenia: The Underlying Neural Mechanisms

2001 words - 9 pages processing functions. In order to test this, the error trials were excluded from analysis. The experimenters then acquired whole-brain images of the subject for the task irrelevant aversive and neutral images. Then, in order to specifically pinpoint areas of activation, contrast maps were made to register significant neural activity. The contrast maps of the experiment group were then compared with those of the control group. Also, whole-brain

The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition - 2191 words

2191 words - 9 pages There are many theories that scientists, in-due circumstances, try to extrapolate as to why the brain goes through the ever-changing neuronal alterations that it goes through because of focused attention. One of these theories is one that many neuroscientists aptly call neuroplasticity. This theory, as some philosophers would have us to believe, goes against the current dogma of the materialistic viewpoints that many neuroscientists hold about

The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition - 2188 words

2188 words - 9 pages There are many theories that scientists, in-due circumstances, try to extrapolate as to why the brain goes through the ever-changing neuronal alterations that it goes through because of focused attention. One of these theories is one that many neuroscientists aptly call neuroplasticity. This theory, as some philosophers would have us to believe, goes against the current dogma of the materialistic viewpoints that many neuroscientists hold about

The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition - 1603 words

1603 words - 6 pages There are many theories that scientists, in-due circumstances, try to extrapolate as to why the brain goes through the ever-changing neuronal alterations that it goes through because of focused attention. One of these theories is one that many neuroscientists aptly call neuroplasticity. This theory, as some philosophers would have us to believe, goes against the current dogma of the materialistic viewpoints that many neuroscientists hold about

The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition - 1601 words

1601 words - 6 pages There are many theories that scientists, in-due circumstances, try to extrapolate as to why the brain goes through the ever-changing neuronal alterations that it goes through because of focused attention. One of these theories is one that many neuroscientists aptly call neuroplasticity: this theory, as some philosophers would have us to believe, goes against the current dogma of the materialistic viewpoints that many neuroscientists hold about

The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition

2111 words - 8 pages There are many theories that scientists, in-due circumstances, try to extrapolate as to why the brain goes through the ever-changing neuronal alterations that it goes through because of focused attention. One of these theories is one that many neuroscientists aptly call neuroplasticity. This theory, as some philosophers would have us to believe, goes against the current dogma of the materialistic viewpoints that many neuroscientists hold about

The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition - 2136 words

2136 words - 9 pages There are many theories that scientists, in-due circumstances, try to extrapolate as to why the brain goes through the ever-changing neuronal alterations that it goes through because of focused attention. One of these theories is one that many neuroscientists aptly call neuroplasticity. This theory, as some philosophers would have us to believe, goes against the current dogma of the materialistic viewpoints that many neuroscientists hold about

The Neural Depths of Our Ever-Changing Cognition - 1838 words

1838 words - 7 pages There are many theories that scientists, in-due circumstances, try to extrapolate as to why the brain goes through the ever-changing neuronal alterations that it goes through because of focused attention. One of these theories is one that many neuroscientists aptly call neuroplasticity. This theory, as some philosophers would have us to believe, goes against the current dogma of the materialistic viewpoints that many neuroscientists hold about

Similar Essays

Neural Plasticity: The Growth Of Learning

939 words - 4 pages Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Over the years, the brain’s ability to rejuvenate or dynamically adapt has been meticulously researched and documented, regarding questions of learning, injury, aging and disease. “Neural plasticity (also referred to as brain plasticity, cortical plasticity or cortical re-mapping)…was first proposed in 1890 by William James in The Principles of Psychology, though the idea was largely neglected for

Neural Imaging Methods Of The Autistic Brain

1328 words - 5 pages blood flow or metabolism. ASD researchers use MRS to look at the quantity and classification of brain metabolites in sections of grey or white matter. This allows them to dictate the potency of the matter in comparison to control subjects based on the amount and types of metabolites found. Researchers are looking into excitatory and inhibitory ratios that help gauge brain connectivity. They are able to do this because they know which metabolites

"The Mystery Of The Missing Kidneys" A Story About The Popular Urban Legend, Bout People Waking Up In A Bathtub, With Their Kidneys Missing, With A Sign Next To Them Saying Ring 911 Or Die

1844 words - 7 pages to hospital minus their kidneys! I figure that this is what has happened again. My name is John Jacobson and I moved to Atlantic Cove, a quiet coastal fishing town, 12 month ago from New York. I was a journalist for the Nor York Times but felt that I needed a change of scenery, as life was too hectic in the city of New York. I remember how one early morning, after I had only just moved in to my small, one bed roomed flat, I was sitting down

Fetal Neural Transplantation In The Treatment Of Parkinson's And Huntington

1522 words - 6 pages Two Diseases, One Hope: Fetal Neural Transplantation in the Treatment of Parkinson's and Huntington's Disease Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Huntington's Disease (HD) are neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by malfunctions within the motor sector of the nervous system. These malfunctions, which are caused either by the surplus (as in HD) or absence (as in PD) of hormones, are a direct result of neural cell deterioration within the