Central Asia after almost a Century of non-existence in the global politics with an exception of the Afghan war is once again a pivotal area of global power struggle. Military presence of the coalition forces in Afghanistan for the last decade changed the balance of force between the competing powers. The post-soviet deal and security architecture was once again revised. First time by the US led intervention in Afghanistan. Second time it was dubbed by the Russian Federation annexation of Crimea in March 2014.
The Central Asia states developed their economies mostly around energy resources and their trade with neighboring regional and global partners. However the security ...view middle of the document...
As a research method author have chosen an analysis of written materials, official government documents and speeches of heads of states and prominent politicians and also a review of the subject literature in English and Polish.
Author argues that the new security dilemma for Central Asia that is emerging at the beginning of the XXI Century combine the problems of a military presence of global powers with their economic interests in accordance to the neoclassical realism . The complex analysis based only on internal factors can’t be treated as a holistic case study. To fully understand the complicated situation in the region author advocates combined approach. It must associate descriptive study in relation to the historical facts and figures, ethnical situation in the region and retrospective of the previous conflicts with multifaceted security case study. In the terms of case study author advocates to show the links between the internal factors (ethnical situation and conflicts, security architecture, state of elites and internal destabilizing potential) and external factors (military presence of global powers – US and Russia, role of the region in the energy security of China, US, Russia, EU and other non-European states, the risk of new wave of terrorism after withdrawal of coalition forces forma Afghanistan). The security of this region for the author is the result of all of the factors mentioned above). This can be operationalize into the hypothesis that the Central Asia is once more a pivot area for the world politics. It is the authors will to prove that the ending of ISAF mission this region will experience new security dilemma which must be addressed only by stabilizing effort not only from the Central Asian states but also from the international actors directly involved and interested in securing the region in accordance to the logic of transcendence proposed by Ken Booth and Nicholas J. Wheeler in their work about the insecurity.
2. Central Asia the pivot area – historical considerations
Central Asia is situated at the most important crossroads in human history. Sometimes it was an important area that offered strategic depth for global power (Soviet Union), sometimes this terrain was a transit route from one part of the globe to another (Mongol Empire) and sometimes it was a base of operations for the invasion of neighboring states (Mughal Empire, Timurids Empire). In the XIX Century it became a buffer area for global competition between the United Kingdom and Tsar Russia and for some period of time China as well. This rivalry between the XIX Century Empires was called by Rudyard Kipling The Great Game . The term which catalyzed the creation of new theory in the global studies. The pivot area theory developed by Sir Halford John Mackinder . It stated that the control of this area guaranteed the ruling over the continental landmass which in effect guaranteed the global hegemony. It was later reformed by James Fairgrieve in the...