The New Science of Politics
When discussing the new science of politics laid out in the Federalist papers, it is imperative to understand that proponents of the Constitution had various reasons for writing these papers, not the least of which was convincing critics that a strong central government that would not oppress but actually protect individual freedoms as well as encouraging the state of New York to agree to ratify the Constitution.
The Federalists had a genuine belief that a strong central government was essential to the protection of what they saw as God given rights and freedoms, as well as protection from abuse from the states concerning these freedoms. The founders embodied three key concepts into the Constitution that would serve as the framework and engine for delivering the ideals of liberalism (the idea of natural rights, liberty, equality, consent of the governed, and the idea of limited government), to the American people under a union of the states: the idea of separation of powers, individual rights, and federalism.
"This inquiry will naturally divide itself into three branches- the objects to be provided for by a federal government, the quantity of power necessary to the accomplishment of those objects, the persons whom that power ought to operate," writes Alexander Hamilton in the Federalist #23 in reference to the separation of powers. The basic concept here is the idea of the federal government being divided into three separate branches that would balance excessive democracy through a system of checks on each other. The three branches, respectively known as the legislature (Article I), the executive (Article II), and the judiciary (Article III), were designed to entice the opponents of the Constitution to ease the threat of misuse of power by strong central government.
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, also known as the Bill of Rights, was designed to protect individual rights of the people. Articles 1-8 describe the limits on all three branches of government, and articles 9 & 10 describe the limits on the national government. This again was to serve, as further proof of the founder's intent to limit the possibility of an oppressive central government.
The third concept, federalism, is the relationship of power between the states and federal government. The fundamental argument was where the power would lie between them. The states were always very concerned that the central government would pose a threat to their way of life, particularly the large states in regard to representation in the legislature, which was the most powerful of the three branches.
The text states that, "emphasis on government programs in the early years of democracy revolved around assistance, promotion and encouragement- the allocation of land or capital where they were insufficiently available for economic development". The results of ratification left the federal government with only a small amount of...