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The Number (French) Essay

1357 words - 5 pages

Introduction Aujourd'hui je voudrais parler de l'évaluation de pi, probablement un des plus importants numéros dans les sciences. Avant de raconter l'histoire de ce chiffre et de son calcul, il est important d'apprendre quelques définitions simples que je vais utiliser: Définition 1 π, la 16ème lettre de l'alphabet grec, est utilisée pour représenter le rapport de la circonférence d'un cercle sur son diamètre.Définition 2 Un chiffre rationnel est un chiffre qu'on peut écrire comme le rapport d'un nombre entier sur un autre nombre entier. Par exemple 0,75 est rationnel parce-qu'on peut écrire 0,75 comme le rapport de trois sur quatre : 0,75 = ¾ Mais la racine carrée de deux (√2) est irrationnelle parce qu'il n' y a aucun nombre entier a et b tel que le rapport de a sur b soit égal à la racine carrée de deux.Définition 3 Le contra-positive de A Þ B est: B est faux Þ A est faux.Prenons l'exemple de la vache. Si on a un animal à quatre pattes, on n'a pas nécessairement une vache, on peut avoir un chat par exemple ou un chien. Donc si la phrase A dit «cette animal est une vache» et la phrase B dit que «cette animal a quatre pattes, nous avons: A Þ B mais il n'est pas nécessairement vrai que B Þ A.Néanmoins, il est certain que nous avons la formulation si B est faux Þ A est faux parce que si nous avons un animal qui n'a pas quatre pattes, il est donc évident que cet animal ne peut être une vache.Une Histoire Brève de L'évaluation de π Le concepte d'évaluation de π est très difficile à comprendre. En effet, à l'école, les professeurs nous ont appris à accepter que π valait 3,14159"¦ Mais pour apprécier le travail des mathématiciens comme Archimède, il est important d'imaginer comment était la situation en l'an 2000 av. J.-C. Les mathématiciens de cette époque ne disaient pas «aujourd'hui je vais calculer la 3ème décimale de π» Ils ne savaient pas que π était un nombre infini. Par exemple les Égyptiens utilisent le chiffre 256/81, qui était 0,60% incorrecte. à le même époque les Babyloniens se rapprochaient de la valeur de π avec 25/81 qui n'était que 0,53% incorrecte. Pour la construction des structures et pour l'arpentage de la terre ces chiffres sont suffisamment précis. C'est alors que...

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