Question 1: Using NJIT as an example, explain how its organizational structure influences how work is organized, how people and groups communicate, and how decisions are made?
Before explaining how the organizational structure of NJIT influences the organization of work, communication and decisions, it is essential to understand how the NJIT is structured.
Organization structure of NJIT
The organization structure of NJIT is complex and highly centralized and hierarchical. It is governed by Board of Trustees and Office of the President reports to the Board. Various other Vice Presidents like, the Human Resources, Academic support and student affairs etc., report to the President’s Office. Each of these Vice Presidents have their own organization structure having multi-level hierarchies. Some of the top level functions like Vice Presidents are supported by Assistants or Directors who are not part of the direct linear hierarchy of the organization structure.
Organization of Work at NJIT
The work in NJIT is highly centralized and has various levels of authority. Each level has a role to play and work to do and cannot cross the boundaries of the defined role. For example, the Vice President of Human Resources is responsible for the employees, the benefit administration, compensations, labor and employee relationships etc. and cannot step out of the boundary of her role. In other words she has no say in the academic support and student affairs.
The people at the helm of affairs are responsible for formulating rules, procedures and guidance and are for enforcing the rules. There are clear cut boundaries for each of the roles.
Communication in this sort of highly centralized and hierarchical organization is often flows from the top to down and precipitates through the various levels of the hierarchy. Communication is often in the form of policies, procedures, rules, regulations and guidelines and flows down from top to down. Upward communication is complying with the rules and regulations and are often in the form of reports and evaluations of the activities performed by the lower levels of the hierarchy. These are analyzed by the higher levels and are further consolidated to be reported to their higher levels of authorities.
Communication between or among groups is more formalized and is within the framework of the given guidelines and stipulated procedures. Informal communication is inevitable in any organization and cuts across among various levels. The informal communication is also known as ‘Organizational grapevine’ and is often useful and at times detrimental to the interest of the organization. Informal communication among groups is often based on the groups of similar interest, culture and ethnicity.
Since NJIT is highly centralized and hierarchical organization decisions are made at the top level and the decisions are to be implemented down the lines of the hierarchy. It is more of ‘do whatever is told and...