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The Origins Of The Computer Essay

954 words - 4 pages

This report is to be distributed freely and not to be sold for profit ect.This report can be modifyed as long as you keep in mind that you didn'twrite it. And you are not to hand in this report claiming credit for itheheh.The Roman Empire, founded by Augustus Caesar in 27 B.C. and lasting in WesternEurope for 500 years, reorganized for world politics and economics. Almost the entirety of thecivilized world became a single centralized state. In place of Greek democracy, piety, andindependence came Roman authoritarianism and practicality. Vast prosperity resulted. Europe andthe Mediterranean bloomed with trading cities ten times the size of their predecessors with publicamenities previously unheard of courts, theaters, circuses, and public baths. And these were nowlarge permanent masonry buildings as were the habitations, tall apartment houses covering wholecity blocks.This architectural revolution brought about by the Romans required two innovations: theinvention of a new building method called concrete vaulting and the organization of labor andcapital on a large scale so that huge projects could be executed quickly after the plans of a singlemaster architect.Roman concrete was a fluid mixture of lime and small stones poured into the hollowcenters of walls faced with brick or stone and over curved wooden molds, or forms, to spanspaces as vaults. The Mediterranean is an active volcanic region, and a spongy, light, tightlyadhering stone called pozzolana was used to produce a concrete that was both light and extremelystrong.The Romans had developed potsalana concrete about 100 B.C. but at first used it only forterrace walls and foundations. It apparently was emperor Nero who first used the materialon a grand scale to rebuild a region of the city of Rome around his palace, the expansive DomusAurea, after the great fire of AD 64 which he said to have set. Here broad streets, regular blocksof masonry apartment houses, and continuous colonnaded porticoes were erected according to asingle plan and partially at state expense. The Domus Aurea itself was a labyrinth of concretevaulted rooms, many in complex geometric forms. An extensive garden with a lake and forestspread around it.The architect Severus seems to have been in charge of this great project. Emperors andemperors' architects succeeding Nero and Severus continued and expanded their work ofrebuilding and regularizing Rome. Vespasian (emperor AD 63-79) began the Colosseum.Which I have a model bad of. Built by prisoners from the Jewish wars the 50,000 Colosseum isone of the most intresting architectural feets of Rome. At its opening in 80 A.D. the Colosseumwas flooded by diverting the Tiber river about 10 kilometers to renact a naval battel with over3,000 participants. Domitian (81-96) rebuilt the Palatine Hill as a huge palace of vaulted concretedesigned by his architect Rabirius. Trajan (97-117) erected the expansive forum that bears hisname (designed by his architect Apollodorus) and a huge public...

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