WORKERS IN THE OTTOMAN PUBLIC DEBT ADMINISTRATION
The main aim of this article is to investigate the workforce involved in a main late-Ottoman institution namely Duyun-ı Umumiye İdaresi (Ottoman Public Debt Administration henceforth OPDA). This article consists of two parts. The first part discusses the political and economic conditions in the Ottoman Empire as in Europe, when OPDA established. The second part deals with workforce involved in OPDA.
The Ottoman Empire and the Establishment of OPDA
In its last two centuries the Ottoman Empire suffered several crises from various aspects. The dissemination of nationalist ideas among its minorities, lost wars also territories, signing of treaties which added to the deteriorating position of the Ottoman Empire vis-à-vis European states. During the two centuries before its final breakdown the Ottoman had lost many wars and ceased large territories. All these exercised a negative effect on the Ottoman Empire. Subsequently, European’s impact, through their economic penetration, missionary activities and nationalist ideas on such minorities as Armenians, Greeks, and Bulgarians, was ever increasing etc. The Ottomans used to make internal borrowings, especially from prominent merchants residing. However, Empire does not resist more across the European countries. After a while, Ottoman Empire taking cash money few European bankers. After a short time, the Ottoman administration borrowed from the European countries.
All these global changes were affected the Ottoman Empire. One of these grids down was appearing out of the external credit. Ottoman Empire borrowed external credit (firstly from Britain) during the Crimean war in 1853-1856. After first loan, other followed until the last quarter of the 19th century when the Ottoman Empire declared bankruptcy. Soon afterward the Ottoman Empire declared a moratorium. Consequently Ramazan Kararnamesi (30 October 1875) was promulgated. In this time the Ottoman Empire was in war with Russia. This atmosphere was affecting on the Kararname and Ottoman Empire cannot carry out article of the Kararname. War was finished with treaty of Berlin in 1878. One of the articles of Berlin treaty was mention about Ottoman debt. In these years the Ottoman Empire debts turn international case. Berlin treaty was giving advice that is established such an organization about public debt.
After a while the Ottoman Empire declared re-shape of the debt due to “Great Economic Depression of 1873-1896” (effect of the Crimean War in 1854 and 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russo war). This declaration was to set European countries into action (they extremely protest against declaration). This action led to conference of organization of the debt in İstanbul (called by Ottoman Empire government). Ottoman Empire invites some European countries representatives that are English, France, Austrian, German, Italian and other.
Sultan Abdülhamid II issued the Decree of Muharrem,...