This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Principles Of Contradiction And Sufficient Reason

1958 words - 8 pages

Leibniz writes in Monadology that his Principles of Contradiction and Sufficient Reason are the basis of the theories found within the piece. While it can be said that the principles alone are rudimental, one may find that, in conjunction with the Principle of the Best, the Predicate-in-Notion Principle, the Complete Concept Principle, and the Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles, the group of axioms cement a highly convincing argument.
The Principle of Contradiction states that a proposition cannot be true and false at once. Truths can be understood as propositions in which the predicate is contained in the subject. Primary truths are most easily understood in this respect, as ...view middle of the document...

Interestingly, Liebniz writes that once an affirmative propositional statement is made, it remains true, and thus, the number of predicates that may be contained in one subject alone verge on the infinite. If one could develop a complete compilation of the subject of a proposition, it would be obvious that the implicit truth is not true because it refers to the world at some moment in time, but because the concept contains every predicate within itself.
From the Predicate-In-Notion principle especially follows the Principle of Sufficient Reason, meaning that no true or existing fact or assertion can be found without a reason which explains why it is not otherwise. So, sufficient Reason is required of both necessary and contingent truths. The complete concept of a subject contains all the predicates that can be made of it in the past, present, and future of its existence. The concept contains these and only these predicates because if one could list each predicate, it would become clear upon analysis that each provides an explanation for the next: “since every present state of a simple substance is a natural consequence of its preceding state, the present is pregnant with the future” (AW, 277). If an explanation for a truth could not be given, there would exist a proposition whose predicate was not to be found in the subject. This would totally contradict Leibniz’s definition of truth. The group of predicates which constitute the complete concept of the subject create that subject’s identity through their series of causes and effects, and differentiate the substance at hand from an infinite number of other finite substances. A substance is, in effect, a complete individual concept, and thus, the notion, or the essence of the substance.
Since some substances are predicated by properties which are contingent, and these properties cannot be themselves analyzed into identities, their negations do not cause contradictions; it follows that there could hypothetically exist a world in which the opposite of the predicates came to be. Moreover, even if the world as it exists must necessarily exist in this way, the analyzing of “prior or more detailed contingents” (AW, 278) would be an infinite process, and little information of the ultimate reasoning for the existence of the substance might be uncovered. In fact, all of the substances that have existed in the history of the world, and all those which will exist in the future, can be considered to be existing only contingently, and even their identities as the summation of all their predications will not explain their presence. Hence, in following once again with the Principle of Sufficient Reason, there must be an alternative explanation as to why such a set of truths come to be, an explanation which requires no other explanation and exists outside of all of the contingent substances which have existed in the particular universe that has arisen.
Leibniz looks to God as this reason. There must exist a...

Find Another Essay On The Principles of Contradiction and Sufficient Reason

Globalisation and the Contradiction of Peripheral Capitalism in Nigeria

9693 words - 39 pages , 2001). Which in essence means that peripheral capitalist states are impotent in terms of their economic policies as regards international flow of capital? This is what prompt's Eskor Toyo to reason that the conquest of capitalism over the rest of the world lies in its ideological roots:"....and the final conquest of capital over the rest of the world is deeply rooted in history and quite explainable within the context of the one arm banditry and

The Jefersonian Era of Contradiction Essay

918 words - 4 pages The Jeffersonian Era of Contradiction When assessing whether Thomas Jefferson's performance in presidential office contradicted his philosophical utterances when he was not in office, one finds that though Jefferson meant well for the young country, in order for him to improve the countries stability and strength, he had to compromise many of his personal convictions and beliefs. Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the

The Age of Reason and Revolution

1193 words - 5 pages The Age of Reason and Revolution Many individuals that lived in the period of time known as the Age of Reason, discovered many new inventions and advancements to improve the quality of life. Some of these advantages brought fourth new ideas to extraordinary people who forever changed the way we look at life. Although many people found these discoveries to bring great revival to mankind, others rejected these new

The Compatibility of Faith and Reason

1536 words - 6 pages In today’s modern western society, it has become increasingly popular to not identify with any religion, namely Christianity. The outlook that people have today on the existence of God and the role that He plays in our world has changed drastically since the Enlightenment Period. Many look solely to the concept of reason, or the phenomenon that allows human beings to use their senses to draw conclusions about the world around them, to try and

The Meanings of Reason and Emotion

1317 words - 6 pages When studying the meanings of reason and emotion it is often that reason is defined as being synonymous with logic, and emotion with spontaneity. Common associations relate logic with conscious thought and contemplation, and emotion with impulse and reflex. Emotions can undermine reasoning when they “run away with us” (Bastien 66), clouding our judgments and causing us to make bad choices. However, emotion can also enhance reasoning by giving

Rise reason and fall of the crusades

864 words - 4 pages to their subjects on top of that they didn't mind their debts. In all jerusalem had three kings during the time period that the christians had it. Notable for the reason why the christians lost jerusalem the first time, a king named Renand took some islamic merchants goods, and in an effort to unify the islamic people a man named saldim raised an army to recover and purge the christians from the city near the lake Tiberius . The Fifteen

Contradiction in The Turn of the Screw by Henry James

1079 words - 4 pages he wants to say or he is saying to contradictory things at the same time” (Ibid). Nevertheless, in The Turn of the Screw, ambiguity does not have relationship to what Wilson and Samuels claim to be the nature of an “ambiguous” work, but rather the opposite. It is precisely the evident contradiction what allows an epistemological ambiguity, in which “no one is really sure of what is happening and the narrators are of dubious reliability” (58). Works Cited “The Ambiguities of Henry James” by J.A. Ward

With reference to the concepts of Post modernity discuss "24" in terms of its contradiction in narrative, genre and representation

3347 words - 13 pages by highlighting the basic building blocks on the common denominators of post-modern theory. Postmodernism is a intellectual theory that analyses what stage of time society is currently in. It sees society's break away from modernity a period that viewed the world as being singularly organised around the principles of reason, rationality and faith and its move towards a time of crumbling truths, where we no longer all conform to set beliefs or any

The Age Of Reason

2437 words - 10 pages . It was the first time when literacy and a library were all that stood between a person and education. The first half of the century has often been aptly described as the Age of Reason, the Augustan Age and the Neo-classical Age. The very description of this period as Augustan throws light on the prosperity and growth of this period, drawing a direct parallel to the affluent era of Latin literature during the reign of Augustus and in the process

The reason of life

896 words - 4 pages was, was trying to tell us that humans do the most stupid mistakes sometimes and we don’t even notice it until something bad happens. You see, the Dragon King believes in the rabbit’s silly lie, but the turtle who brought the rabbit to the Dragon Kingdom should know that a liver is inside the body because all reptiles have livers. But, the rabbit got away, which literally blew me away from the stupidity of the Dragon Kingdom and especially, the

Huck's Contradiction in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

1869 words - 7 pages Huck's Contradiction in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn       In Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Huck was a boy who thought very little of himself, but had a huge impact on others.  His moral standing was based on what is easier, right or wrong.  He lived the way he wanted to live, and no one told him otherwise.  He had the adventure of a lifetime, and yet he learned along the way. Although Huck

Similar Essays

The Contradiction Of Chivalry And Courtly Love

911 words - 4 pages The Contradiction of Chivalry and Courtly Love Two conflicting disciplines are prevalent throughout Arthurian Legend; that of chivalry and that of courtly love. The ideal of each clash throughout the medieval tales, and it is impossible to interfuse the two models for society. Chivalry is a masculine code, an aggressive discipline, whereas courtly love is based upon women - their needs, wants, and desires. The consistent problem if Lancelot

Survival Of The Self Sufficient Essay

986 words - 4 pages When the Holocaust is featured in literature, survival, interpersonal interactions, and resourcefulness of main characters is often shown. In Maus I and Maus II, Art Spiegelman utilizes the graphic novel format to tell the story of Vladek Spiegelman’s application of bilingual, bartering, and salesmanship skills to survive the tragic lifestyle of camps in the Holocaust. In contrast, in the memoir, Night, by Elie Wiesel, Elie portrays his

Contradiction Between The Theory Of Evolution And The Bible

1171 words - 5 pages bible. Even though Darwin took his this theory back before he died, his works still affect us today. He left an eternal effect. The contradiction of the bible and the theory of evolution began when Darwin wrote The Origin of Species. Darwin, who was a naturalist and companion, boarded the HMS Beagle in 1831-1836. In his journey, he collected mockingbirds, finches and others animals from Galápagos Island. While collecting, he started to notice

International Law And The Contradiction Of Australian Policies

2965 words - 12 pages "INTERNATION LAW AND THE CONTRADICTION OF AUSTRALIAN POLICIES"Since 1992, the notion of mandatory detention for unlawful citizens seeking asylum for political, racial and economic hardship was legislated by the Commonwealth Government of Australia. Subsequently, Australia's domestic policy relating to this matter has resulted in a state of cruelty towards refugees and unsympathetic to their circumstances. Furthermore, the policy, highlighted in