The Printing Business. Report Discusses The History, Changes, And Present Of The Business

1946 words - 8 pages

The printing industry is a very important and useful industry. The industry has gone through a lot of changes. My report will discuss the history, changes, and present of the printing business.The first printing was actually in China and was called yin (meaning to authenticate by the impression of a seal on clay). Seals were followed by taking ink rubbings from stone inscriptions, which has directly led the way to the making of books by inked impressions from wood. Ink rubbings were made by taking a moistened paper and laying it on the stone inscription. With a stiff brush the paper was then forced into every depression and crevice of the stone. As soon as the paper was dry, a stuffed pad of cotton or silk is dipped in sized ink and passed lightly, and evenly over it, When the paper is peeled off it is imprinted with a perfect and durable impression of the inscription, which comes out in white on a black back ground. This is a process similar to block printing. China was the first country to print with paper, ink, and carved wooden blocks, a process called xylography. In this process, a single carved wooden block of text was used to print impressions on whole pages. By the 11th century, the Chinese had cut the blocks into individual characters, creating the world's first movable type.The Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans printed from movable type well before the Western world discovered the art in the 15th century. Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany, is generally credited with the invention of printing from movable type between 1440 and 1450. Historians believe that his invention consisted of the combination of a number of existing processes. His major contribution probably was the making of adjustable metal molds for casting types of different sizes accurately and in large quantities. By the end of the year 1500, printing presses had been set up in more than 250 cities throughout Europe. Books printed before the end of 1500 were called incunabula, meaning 'cradle books'.Gutenberg's process spread quickly to other European nations.Among the printers of the period incunabula the names of Gutenberg, Johann Fust, and Peter Schoffer are outstanding. Anton Koberger of Nuremberg, a publisher and printer, printed many important volumes. Among them were editions of the Bible in Latin and German. The copies of the 42-line Bible that remain--about 40 in all--are among the world's most valuable books. It is known as the 42-line Bible because most of its pages are 42 lines long. It was printed in three volumes. The Library of Congress and the national libraries of Britain and France have complete and perfect sets. His most famous book is probably the `Nuremberg Chronicle', printed in 1493. It is illustrated with hundreds of woodcuts. The portraits are all imaginary, and the same block is often repeated as the picture of different persons. Gutenberg's process spread quickly to other European nations. Over time, the literacy rate gradually rose among the...

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