The Troubles Era was largely seen as having taken place primarily within the 1960s, although it expanded for three decades. During this time frame, civil rights marches occurred frequently and more often than not ended in bloody conflicts. Politicians were faced with restoring the peace and establishing a stronger and more economic Ireland. Inter-parties became common in an attempt to establish unity.
The Mother and Child Scheme as it was called began with Dr. Browne, the Minister of Health. Dr. Browne introduced a health act, similar to the failed Ryan Health Act of 1947, in which it would allow free healthcare for pregnant women and their children who are up to the age of sixteen (Jackson 307). This provided strong backlash from the Catholic Church who felt their pay was going to be at risk (Jackson 307). The idea of simply praying in order to heal one’s illness was commonly accepted before then. Members of the Church stated that this act if implemented would lead to birth control and abortion, both of which were considered a sin. After the failure of the Mother and Child proposal Dr. Browne left the first inter-party administration. Browne’s public departure combined with that of several other politicians (they left due to other reasons) marked the fall of the party (Jackson 306-307).
The civil rights movement began in 1953 and was modeled closely after the American civil rights movement. Approximately, 44,000 civil servants took part in a demonstration in Dublin to protest. (http://www.finance.gov.ie/documents/civilservice/CandAscheme.pdf ) The government had failed to enact the Civil Service Arbitration Board's award which would increase minimum wage and provide a better workplace environment (Éireann). Due to the government’s inactivity the civil servants were furious. The same year another 1,000 unemployed people staged a fifteen minute sit down in Dublin. This was led by Dr. Costello who attempted to garner support and grants from the governor in order to increase wages.
The protests were often times faced with violent resistance and were seen as the height of the Troubles Era. During this time frame, the Broadcasting Act was expanded to forbid many publications and other literature which was sympathetic or directly promoting the IRA (Censorship). Shortly after, the Catholic Church attempted to get pornography banned.
The Second Inter-Party was formed in 1954 and was headed by Costello. The Fine gael (highly republican), the Labour party (very democratic), and the Clann na Talmhan (which was largely agrarian) were all participants in this party. In 1955 Ireland entered the United Nations but refused to join NATO (Jackson 312). The Irish delayed entering the U.N. due to the opposition of the Soviet Union (Jackson 312). Just after receiving access to the United Nations, Ireland attempted to display their support by remaining largely active in peace keeping missions. Ireland participated in seven out of twelve...