Artificial intelligence is the area of science that focuses upon creating machines that have the ability to behave more intelligently than human beings. The potential to develop intelligent machines has fascinated human beings for several centuries. The introduction of computers and over 50 years of research in techniques of artificial intelligence programming have led people to believe that the dream of such smart capabilities will soon become a reality. The main issue of artificial intelligence is the challenges that have not yet been met and scientists are not yet aware of how to resolve the issue in terms of manufacturing intelligence. The issues related with determining the very meaning of intelligence and consciousness have adversely impacted the progress in innovating systems that equal human levels of intelligence. Another reason why such a possibility remains quite remote is that the search is not being done in the right direction.
Researchers have started developing intelligent systems that can perform almost the same functions as the human mind, in addition to understanding speech and performing several other functions that were not possible earlier. It is now possible to ascertain how militaries of different nations make use of artificial intelligence techniques in developing their high-tech systems. This paper will thoroughly examine the history of artificial intelligence and the development that has taken place in this regard over the last few decades in providing human beings with better facilities and higher standards of living.
Artificial Intelligence and Technology
The phrase artificial intelligence was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy, who was a computer science professor at Stanford University. According to him, artificial intelligence implied the engineering and science of creating intelligent machines. During the initial years of the development of artificial intelligence there was considerable excitement and the pioneers of the concept had made confident and forthright predictions. Herbert Simon was an innovator of artificial intelligence systems and had predicted in 1965 that within 20 years machines will be capable of doing everything that human beings can do. Two years later, MIT scholar Marvin Minsky predicted that the next generation will be able to get over the complexities associated with creating artificial intelligence systems. In keeping with such determination amongst researchers, popular culture started taking for granted that artificial intelligence will be able to provide man with robots that could perform all human functions.
Movies such as Jetsons, Star Wars and Rosy the Robot were instant successes and created a wave of popularity whereby high expectations were raised in the context of artificial intelligence. However, after a few decades of such assertions people have started questioning what artificial intelligence has done for humanity. Many believe that if artificial...