Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system is the holistic procedures of preventing food from physical, chemical, and biological hazards. These procedures must be followed and obligated by the authorities such as food manufacturers, HACCP team and government auditing agencies. HACCP team is a group of four to six personnel that are responsible in the implementation, performance and enforcement of HACCP system in a food manufacturing company. They are trained in HACCP approach (Mortimore & Wallace, 2001). Usually, a company promotes a group of their expert and multi-disciplinary employees to join this group (Pun & Bhairo-Beekhoo, 2008). These procedures help the manufacturers or operators to ensure the foods are safe before being introduced to consumers or marketed worldwide. HACCP procedures are proven to be more effective and efficient system to monitor and manage the food hazard compared to conventional approach that focused only the inspection or test on the final product, without monitoring the whole processes. There are seven procedures of HACCP that are obligated to be followed. The procedures are conducting the hazard analysis, identifying the Critical Control Points (CCP), establishing Critical Limits, monitoring the Critical Control Points, establishing the corrective actions, verifying the processes and keeping record (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
The first procedure of HACCP system is the HACCP team conducts hazard analysis. Initially, they conduct hazard analysis by identifying the hazards that may contaminate the foods during the whole production processes. HACCP team starts this process by listing the human food pathogens, after that they conduct an evaluation of its production process, raw materials and possible contaminations (Pun & Bhairo-Beekhoo, 2008). According to Loken (1995), there are three types of hazards which are microbiological hazards (virus or bacteria), chemical hazards (toxic substances) and physical hazards (any objects that are possibly causing internal injuries). Then, they identify the sources of hazards, their contamination routes and the probability of them to present during the food production processes.
The second procedure of HACCP system is determining the Critical Control Points (CCP). During this crucial procedure, the HACCP team identifies the control points that are vulnerable to hazard. They use the basic Statistical Process Control (SPC) as a tool to measure the control points. After that, they suggest the preventive steps toward the food hazards. Then, they plan a system that able to cope with the food hazards as they present during the food processing.
The third procedure of HACCP system is establishing Critical Limits. At this procedure, HACCP team identify the limit for each critical point. In example, the temperature and time of cooking, or even the texture and taste of the processed food must have certain limit to ensure the foods meet the safety and quality...