With great power, comes great responsibility. A leader is chosen because of his or her charismatic appearance, trusted manifestos or simply he is known by the people. The process of choosing a leader might be different, depending on the type of governance system in the country. Three types of governance system are democratic system, totalitarianism, and authoritarianism. There are two forms of democracy; namely the American Model and the British Model. The British Model portrays the parliament system (Moten & Islam, 2011). The people have the right to choose their leader by the process named election. There are six steps in the process of conducting a general election or a by-election. They ...view middle of the document...
The next process in nomination step is scrutinizing of the nomination paper. The nomination papers are scrutinized by the Returning Officer and assisted by the Assistant Returning Officer. The forms have to be assure are completed and the candidates are eligible to stand for the elections. Candidates who were bankrupted and their agents in the last election, which have unsuccessfully submitted their election expenses returns are some example of people who are automatically disqualified (Suruhanjaya Pilihanraya Malaysia, 2011).
After that, with all the necessary checks, the names of candidates are announced, together with their parties that are taking part in the election. If there is just a single candidate that is eligible to stand for election in a constituency, he is automatically announced to have won the election without contest by the Returning Officer (Suruhanjaya Pilihanraya Malaysia, 2011).
The third step in conducting general election is an election campaign. First, the candidates need to pay for the campaign materials deposit. For example, in Malaysia five thousand Ringgit Malaysia need to be paid for the Parliamentary seats and three thousand Ringgit Malaysia need to be paid for state seats as campaign materials deposit. After the Returning Officer made an announcement about the contest in a constituency, the candidates and their representative immediately begin with their campaign. The campaign includes the affixing of posters, distributing pamphlets, talks and from house to house campaigning (Suruhanjaya Pilihanraya Malaysia, 2011). Lim (n.d) stated that the main campaign methods now used are
media coverage and advertising, in-door meetings or ceramah (talks) and house-to-house canvassing. The media, both print and electronic, are generally unavailable as well as unfavorable to the opposition because of a combination of government ownership, government control and media self-censorship. The ceramah, which can reach only a limited audience, also require a police permit. (p.125)
The campaigning activities must end at 12.00 am or 12.00 pm before the polling day. Then, the deposits are returned to the respective candidate or his agent within 14 days of polling once all of the campaign materials are cleared. The deposit will be used by the authorities for the city clean up if the parties fail fulfill the requirements. The balance of the city clean-up operations is then returned to the respective party (Suruhanjaya Pilihanraya Malaysia, 2011).
The fourth step in conducting general election is polling. During the polling day, electors went out to cast their votes. The vote casting takes place at polling centre, which are open starting from 8.00 am to 5.00 pm by...