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The Processes Of The Respiratory System

913 words - 4 pages

Next, the respiratory system. The cells of the body need energy for most of their chemical activities in order to maintain homoeostasis. Most of this energy is derived from chemical reactions which can only take place in the presence of oxygen. The respiratory system is the human body system that enables an organism to respire and thus be able to absorb oxygen into the body. It involves the uptake of oxygen into the body and the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere or environment. Respiration occurs like all other body mechanisms with the aid of special tissues, cells and organs. The lungs are the main organs with the process of respiration. Air passes into the lungs to supply the body with oxygen through the process of inhalation. Carbon dioxide which is not needed by the human body is passed out or expelled through the process of exhalation. The two processes happen interchangeably and they are collectively referred to as breathing or ventilation.
The respiratory system is made up of the trachea, lungs, air sacs, diaphragm, bronchi, and bronchioles. The respiratory system provides the route by which the supply of oxygen present on the atmosphere gains entry to the body and also an opposite route for the excretion of carbon dioxide. Exchange of gases between an organism and its external environment is known as external respiration whereas that between the blood and the cells internal respiration. First of all, air is breathed into the body via the mouth and the nose. The air travels through the voice box (pharynx) down to the windpipe (trachea) and then through the bronchi into the lungs. The Carbon dioxide which is not needed is therefore required to be exhaled. This happens in a reverse process. However, the air taken into the lungs is filtered off particles such as dirt and germs by cilia (mucus-covered hairs) found in the nostrils. The diaphragm helps the lungs to expand and contract during the process of inhalation and exhalation. Inhalation is the process whereby oxygen is taken into the body. During the process of inhalation, the muscles contract to increase the volume of the lung capacity in order to be able to accommodate more oxygen. The diaphragm contracts and the ribs together with the abdomen are moved downwards. During exhalation, air is breathed out of the body and this happens when the muscles and contract ti generate a thoracic force or pressure to force out air from the lungs. In addition to gaseous exchange, the respiratory system also assists in the process of cellular respiration. It is the process whereby the cells in the body are able to convert oxygen which is taken into the body through gaseous exchange to water and energy. Energy is...

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