Transition metals are a group of metals that are considered dense and have high melting and boiling points. They are located between the alkaline earth metals group and the boron group. The transition metals are characterized by the number of inner energy levels that are occupied by the atoms. They are then separated into 2 groups: d-type transition metals and f-type transition metals. D-type transition metals are mostly consisted of important metals (commercially) and the rare and unimportant metals. They are ranged from very reactive to noble. The metals in this group all form a variety of different alloys. The f-type transition metals consists of lanthanides (rare earth metals) and actinides which is from thorium to lawrencium. These metals are very reactive. Only a few of these elements are common but several of the f-type elements are useful. For example, cerium and thorium, which are found in alloys, uranium and plutonium in nuclear reactors.
Gold is a soft, malleable, yellow metal that is located in period 11 group 6. It has the atomic number of 79 and the atomic symbol of Au, which stands for the Latin word Aurum. Like all the other transition metals, gold has a high melting and boiling point. Its melting point is 1,063℃ and its boiling point is 2,966℃. Also, gold is the most malleable and the most ductile of all the elements. It is also an excellent conductor of electricity and heat. It also has a high resistance to corrosion. Gold is commonly alloyed with other metals for jewelry. It was also used as for currency for centuries. Because gold has a lack of toxicity, it is used in medicine often as well as dentistry.
Gold is mined in two ways; placer and vein mining. Placer mining is when the metal is found in sand and gravel and the gold can be easily separated due to the gold’s high density. The sand and gravel are moved by the water, while the gold, which is heavier sinks to the bottom of the pan. Vein mining, also known as lode mining, is when gold is extracted from an ore. Each ounce of gold recovered needs the processing amount of 10,000 ounces of ore. Although this may be a lot, there is a lot of gold in the rock veins. In fact, more than half of the world’s total production of gold is using vein mining.
Gold has been used for medicine and dentistry can be dated back for thousands of years. The earliest record of medical use of gold was by the Chinese in 2500 B.C. For dentistry, the earliest use would be for using gold wire to secure substitute teeth and were used by the Etruscans. Since gold is malleable and resistant to corrosion, it is ideal to be used in dentistry. Most of the 20th century, gold has been used in medicine. For example, medicines that treat rheumatoid arthritis contain gold. It has also been used in the treatment of cancer. Gold is also used for implants as well as treating facial nerve paralysis. Gold is ideal for implants because they are very resistant to bacteria.
Lagophtalmos is the inability to...