Discuss the Punic Wars. What caused the conflicts between Carthage and Rome? What were the consequences for both sides?
There was a series of three Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome with the first occurring between 264 BCE and the last one ending in 146 BCE. The reasoning and motives for the three wars varies. However, no matter what the motives of the wars were, the end result was the defeat and total destruction of the Carthaginian civilization.
Essentially, the conflict arose from the clash of economic interests. The Carthaginians wished to protect commercial basis of power, while the Romans committed themselves to expansion (Marcel Le Glay 2009, 73). Carthage would lose the First Punic War, the result of this loss would cause vast amount of reprirations paid to Rome and a social revolt amongst its own people. Rome on the other hand would grow even more powerful, gaining land, and the birth of Rome as a naval power (Marcel Le Glay 2009, 75).
The Second Punic war some think was desired by the Carthaginians, as a form of payback for the losses they obtained from the First Punic War. One of the most famous figures of this was the Carthaginian general “Hannibal”. This war lasting 17 years, has often been called the “Hannibalic War,” One of the major exploits of this campaign was Hannibal’s decision to attack Rome from the north of Italy instead of the south. Hannibal was eventually defeated and rather than be captured he committed suicide. Carthage was also defeated weakening the state even more and increasing the Romans power.
The third and Final Punic War was caused what some believe was war mongering by wealthy Roman senators with financial interests. Whatever the reason was, this war had a tragic outcome for Carthage with this loss the city was destroyed and the people dispersed throughout the Roman territories.
Question 3 (Essay Worth 25 points)
Discuss the contributions of the Gracchus brothers. What were their concerns for Rome? What changes did they implement?
Before one can discuss the contributions of the Gracchus brothers, I believe there concerns for Rome need to be pointed out first. There were two brothers Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, these two brothers came from a prominent background. These two brothers concerns might have had different agendas that they had to deal with, but in the end they seemed to have the well-being of all Roman citizens and the state at heart.
One of the major reforms that Tiberius tried to pass was land reform, Tiberius was elected tribune, he proposed a law that made it illegal for any one individual to own more than a certain amount of land, which made many powerful senators fearful and angry (Marcel Le Glay 2009, 112). Tiberius was killed in 132.
Tiberius’ brother Gaius was elected tribune in 123, and again in 122 (Marcel Le Glay 2009). Gaius like his brother attempted to push many...