This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Ratio Of Contrast Volume To Glomerular Filtration Rate Predicts In Hospital And Six Months Mortality In Patients Undergoing Primary Angioplast

2063 words - 9 pages

Decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndromes (1-5). Patients who have normal renal functions and undergo percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are also under risk for adverse events due to contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). (6,7)

Contrast volume is an modifiable major risk factor for CIN and closely related with in-hospital mortality (8-10). Recently the ratio of contrast volume to GFR (V/GFR) was found to be as a predictor of increase in creatinine values and CIN following PCI (11-13). However, impact of V/GFR on short and long term prognosis after primary PCI has not been evaluated so far. Therefore, ...view middle of the document...

Reperfusion time and door –to-balloon time were also recorded. On admission, blood values were obtained from all patients. Serum creatinine was also measured before the angiography procedure and within 48 hours afterward. A 12-lead ECG was recorded in each patient just after hospital admission, and the myocardial infarction type was also obtained from the ECGs. At 24 to 72 hours after revascularization ,a transthoracic echocardiography was performed by using a system V (Vingmed,GE,Horten,Norway) with a 2,5-MHz phased-array transducer, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated using a modified Simpson’s method.( 15)
2.3 Coronary angiography and PCI
All patients were given a chewable 300 mg aspirin and clopidogrel (600 mg loading dosage) before coronary angiography. After the procedure, all patients were prescribed aspirin (100 mg once daily) and clopidogrel (75 mg once daily). Angiographic data of the patients were assessed from catheter laboratory records. All procedures were performed via femoral route. A nonionic, low osmolar contrast agent Ultravist (Iopromide, 370 mgI/mL Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.Germany) was utilized in all patients. The artery that was anticipated to be unhindered was injected first. Heparin (100 IU/kg) was administered when the coronary anatomy was first described. After visualizing the left and right coronary arteries, 2.5 μg of nitrate was selectively injected into the infarct related arter (IRA) to exclude a possible coronary spasm. An angiographic evaluation was made by visual assessment. Primary angioplasty (including balloon angioplasty and/or stent implantation) was performed just for IRA according to lesion type. For each procedure, interventional success at the acute phase was defined as reducing to <30% of obstruction and stenosis of the IRA with Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 3 flow just after primary angioplasty. The use of tirofiban was left to the discretion of the operator.

2.4 Definitions
The time from symptom onset to the coronary reperfusion was defined as time to reperfusion with balloon inflation. Door–to-balloon time was defined as the time between emergency department and balloon inflation .Patients were assessed according to Killip clinical examination classification (16) .Advanced heart failure was defined as New York Heart Association classification of at least >3 .Non-diabetic patients were defined as the patients without documented DM using neither oral hypoglisemic agents nor insulin treatment at admission .Hypercholesterolemia was defined as total cholesterol of at least 200 mg/dlor use of cholesterol-lowering drugs.A family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as documented case of CAD in a parent or sibling before 60 years of age. Anemia was defined as the hemoglobin concentration less than 13 mg/dl in men and 12 mg/dl in women. Cardiovascular death was defined as unexplained sudden death ,death as a result of acute myocardial...

Find Another Essay On The Ratio of Contrast Volume to Glomerular Filtration Rate Predicts in-hospital and six months mortality in patients undergoing primary angioplast

In The Six Months After December 1941, The Japanes

1984 words - 8 pages In the six months after December 1941, the Japanese forces conquered many island and territories in and around the western pacific. It took over 3 years for the allies to drive the Japanese and re-conquer these territories. Why was there this difference? The purpose of this essay is to discuss the reason as to why Japan was so successful at conquering so many islands and territories in just six months during the second world war. I will also be

Investigate and find the relationship between heat loss (of water) and surface area to volume ratio of animals

1083 words - 4 pages 500ml flask. Also we can see that the 250ml flask lost it's waters heat at somewhere between that of the 100ml and 500ml flask, proving my prediction correct.From the results I can say that, SA to volume ratio does affect the rate of heat loss.Evaluation of Results:I thought that most of my results were very accurate. However there were a number of points out of place that I could improve on. On the '250ml experiment' the reading between six and

Nurse’s Duty in Fall Prevention especially in patients undergoing Hemodialysis

991 words - 4 pages Nurse’s Duty in Fall Prevention especially in patients undergoing Hemodialysis Falls can happen at any time and place in a hospital setting. It is a major patient safety issue causing injury, distress and even death. According to Debra Hain (2012), “In 2010, there were 2.35 million emergency room visits for non-fatal injuries in older adults with over 25% requiring hospitalization” (pg. 251). Falls can interrupt a person’s quality of life

Clinician’s Educational Strategies to Engage Patients in Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

1859 words - 8 pages recommended. To increase the likelihood of patient participation in such programs, clinicians must be encouraging and assist patients with ways to overcome external barriers that keep patients from participating.8 Primary providers can discuss and identify barriers and lifestyle influences which can be changed to reduce a patient’s high-risk behaviors and participation in necessary programs.6 One study established an ABC’s guide as an easy way for

The Mortality of the Red Spruce and Fraser Fir in the Appalachians due to Air Pollution

1875 words - 8 pages ; and the more research that was done the more evidence they found that linked air pollution with the mortality of these trees (Mello 1987). Air pollution is the main reason for tree mortality among the Red Spruce and the Fraser fir. The onset of modern air pollution has caused many problems for the trees in the form of acid deposition, changes in nutrient ratios, and weakening trees to insect defoliation, as well as harsh weather conditions.The

Care In and Out of the Hospital

1566 words - 6 pages rehospitalized, which means they are taken back to the hospital to be cared for yet again. Many people who are discharged must be rehospitalized because they needed more recovery time in the hospital and their home care was insufficient. Because of the care, it is hurting them in the long run because they are staying sick for a long period of time. Plans that are given to the patients after discharge are not always helpful; if they do not have a

Musings on Mortality: The Theme of Mortality in Spenser’s “Amoretti: Sonnet 75”, and Shakespeare’s “Sonnet 55” and “Sonnet 65”

1727 words - 7 pages Death is the powerful force that defines the boundaries of life. Awareness of mortality is the influence behind many decisions that living beings make. In Spenser’s “Amoretti: Sonnet 75” and Shakespeare’s “Sonnet 55” and “Sonnet 65” the common theme is mortality. In the three sonnets, mortality is referred to with fear and anxiety. The principle of “Ars longa, vita brevis”, meaning, “art is long, life is short” (Eggleston), is captured by the

Methods to Improve Sleep and Rest in the Hospital

1092 words - 4 pages The founders of nursing acknowledged the need for sleep and rest to aid the body in healing, but with 60% of patients requesting a sedative, this shows the hospital environment is not one that promotes sleep and rest. There is renewed interest in exploring the best nonpharmacological methods of helping achieve sleep and rest while in the hospital to promote healing (Robinson, Weitzel, & Henderson, 2005). Evidence-Based Practice As nurses

Discuss the primary purpose of financial markets in respect to financial instruments and institutions

554 words - 2 pages increased from 50% to over 90%, but because of increased technology (global communications etc) this is seen as acceptable. In this case, technology plays a role in facilitating the flow of funds in a corporation by allowing a change in the debt to equity ratio. In comparison to the above example, debt can be viewed as deficit units and equity can be viewed as surplus units.As can be seen in the above examples through the use of financial institutions and instruments, the facilitation of the flow of funds is by far the primary purpose of financial markets.

Sleep disturbance among patients in hospital: Implication for nursing care - Department of Nursing - Study

4025 words - 17 pages total sleep time. Although sleep quantity and quality improved significantly as from the 7th day of admission, patients still reported inadequate feeling of restfulness in the morning. Identified causes of poor sleep in the hospital included environmental factors (bright lights, noise, heat, cold, disturbance by mosquitoes), frequent awakening by nurses for procedures and discomforts due to the illness. Nurses reported sleep difficulty in only

The Utilization and Application of Restraints in Non-psychiatric Patients

1129 words - 5 pages thirty four ICUs in nine different countries, researchers found that 33% of the patients were restrained under the circumstances of being ventilated, sedated, in larger units and in hospitals where the nurse to patient ratio was decreased (Benbenbishty et al., 2010). The primary reasoning for restraining patients was pulling on tubing and lines with the possible case of self extubation (Benbenbishty et al., 2010.). In hospitals and especially

Similar Essays

Glomerular Filtration Rate And Chronic Kidney Disease Management

3008 words - 12 pages glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 30mL/min per 1.73m2, but older adults are not referred as recommended. The purpose was to measure the physician’s decision to refer hypothetical patients to nephrologists Campbell, Sachs, Hemmerich, Smith, Stankus, Dale 2010). Design This is a cross sectional survey. Sample and Size (N=) There were 16 of internists, 14 geriatricians, and eight nephrologists completed the survey. Respondents had the mean of

Surface Area To Volume Ratio And The Relation To The Rate Of Diffusion

1330 words - 5 pages Surface Area to Volume Ratio and the Relation to the Rate of DiffusionAim and BackgroundThis is an experiment to examine how the Surface Area / Volume Ratio affects the rate of diffusion and how this relates to the size and shape of living organisms.The surface area to volume ratio in living organisms is very important. Nutrients and oxygen need to diffuse through the cell membrane and into the cells. Most cells are no longer than 1mm in

Six Goals In Six Months Essay

807 words - 4 pages a job is to save money to go to college and help my parents with the financial burden. Having a job can teach me time management, responsibilities, and financial techniques. I can get a job by looking at ads of where someone is needed. I can write a resume, go place applications and starting with internship and later on applying for a job. My main goal for the six goals is to get it done in six months. Every three weeks I can incorporate a

Child And Infant Mortality Rate In Afghanistan

1427 words - 6 pages (Campbell 2001)” (Dean 4). Because iron is an essential nutrient needed for a growing fetus, the mothers themselves are not healthy which in turn leads to unhealthy babies. The babies are born underweight, sickly, and undernourished. Many of the infants die before the age of one, which causes Afghanistan to have a high infant mortality rate (Lawn 2005). Afghanistan’s infant mortality rate is one of the world’s highest among others such as Sub-Sahara