1. Compare and contrast the production of conventionally bred and GMO plants. A brief summary of the ways that these plants are produced and what are the limits of each technology.
Both Genetically Modified and conventional plant breeding have been used for many years by farmers. Though both methods of breeding conclude with the same outcome both work differently with changing the genes of the plant to produce offspring that have the desired traits.
Conventionally bred plants involve cross pollinating, using desirable characteristics of different parent plants and backcrossing with a hybrid and a parent plant to produce an offspring with genetically similar traits to that of the parent plant. Advantages to backcrossing would depend highly upon the parent plant being the elite genotype; this would create success at the end of the program with the offspring having traits to that of the parent plant. However disadvantages can occur from bringing in unwanted traits from the genome of the recurrent parent plants.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) is produced by altering or changing their genetic makeup using one of the three methods. A transgenic and cisgenic method is where foreign or related gene is inserted from other species and this enables the GMO to express the trait coded by the new gene, as shown in the diagrams below. Another method involves the deactivation of a certain gene in order to prevent an expression of specific trait; example can be the deactivation of the ripening gene within fruits and vegetables to enable its freshness. The last method used involves altering the existing gene, which is taking place to make the organism express at a higher level or in a different way.
In addition, major limitations for convention bred derive from the limits towards only being able to breed with related organisms, which limits to adding new traits, and with the cross pollinating process, undesirable traits can be transferred in the process. Conventional bred is a time consuming process which costs money.
GMO’s limits from only being able to target single/ simple gene characteristics and generally costs a lot of money as well. Duration of the process can be an issue for GMO as is can lead to no real testing’s for possible problems. Which is why conventional bred is more effective due to the range in targeting genes. However, with genetic modification a wide range of different traits can integrate into a plant and takes up only a fraction of the time needed for conventional methods.
2. Are the genes in any organism unique to that organism?
Yes and No because each organism is unique through its genotype, the genotype of an organism is the combinations of alleles for a given gene and the phenotype of an organism is the physical structure based on the genotype. However, through specific processes like DNA, hybridization it provides us with a look on the effects of evolution and through cellular respiration needed to sustain...