Tuberculosis also known as ‘Tuber Bacillus’ is a deadly, infectious disease which primarily impacts on the lungs which is called pulmonary TB. TB can also impact on the other parts of the body including the Brain, kidneys and bones which is called non – pulmonary TB. The disease of TB is caused in humans mainly from a bacterium called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis was first described by Robert Koch as unusual with waxy coating on its cell surface. TB can also affect the cattle from a bacterium called Mycobacterium Bovis. Evidences show us that Tuberculosis has been in our society for at least 15,000 years now. We get to know this by the traces of tuberculosis in mummies. In 460 BC this disease was named consumption because of the way a person losses weight who is suffering from Tuberculosis. TB mainly spreads through the air from one person to another through tiny droplets of infected sputum. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a TB patient speaks coughs or sneezes. There are many different circumstances in which a normal person may get TB. Usually people get TB when they live with someone who is TB patient, they are homeless, they live in a polluted environment or people suffer from malnutrition.
TWO STAGES OF TB
Tuberculosis can impact on any part of the body. It depends on what stage is TB up to. There are two stages of TB
1. Pulmonary TB
This type of TB only affects the lungs. Pulmonary TB can spread really quickly to other people. In pulmonary TB when TB is active. The bacteria form cavities (holes) in the lungs, which allow the oxygen and carbon dioxide to enter. This provides bacterium an excellent way to produce, hence the TB spreads rapidly. Cavity causes destruction of lung tissues with coughing, pitting up blood, fever, night sweats and weight loss.
2. Non pulmonary TB
This type of TB can affect pretty much any part of the body. Non – pulmonary TB doesn’t spread easily to other people. Non pulmonary TB occurs after when the bacterium destroys the lungs. Then the bacteria travels thorough the blood stream to affect other part of the body. For example non – pulmonary TB can spread to the spine and may the patient pain, non – tuberculosis in your kidneys can cause blood in your urine.
In a research it is found that Tuberculosis usually attacks a cell called macrophage. It is found that macrophages from TB patient have much more of the DC-SIGN protein on the surface than macrophages from patient suffering from other disease or from the control individuals.
TWO TYPES OF TB
People suffering with latent TB have Mycobacterium Tuberculosis present in their body, but the body’s immune system makes them inactive. The body’s white blood cells called macrophages comes in action and puts the bacteria in a walled off area called granulomas. This doesn’t develop the bacteria anymore.
The bacterium stored in granulomas becomes active when the immune system is damaged...