1. History, Progress Description about this project and Introduction about dead sea:
The Dead Sea, the most salty lake and the Earth lowest place on the land, borders Israel and Palestine to the west and bordering Jordan to the east. The salinities is about 10 times as salty as the world ocean average. Thanks to the high salinities, both tourism industry and chemical industry benefits from it. Tourists can float on the water surface because of its high buoyancy. Chemical factory can got tons of brine by evaporation methods to make fertilizer.
Rainfall in the Dead Sea region is very low in nature. Jordan River is the only main water supply for the Dead Sea. Some small underground spring also provide some amount of water for Dead Sea. Due to unlimited use of the water in Jordan River for household, agriculture and industrial consumption, the total input of water into the Dead sea has decreased significantly. The total volume of water input from Jordan River has decreased from 1,300 m3 to 260 m3. TO solve the problem of quick decline, the water diversion project from Read Sea to Dead sea has been proposed as a solution to increase the recharging volume into the Dead sea and the feasibility study has been made by the World Bank.
In 2005, the government of Jordan, Israel and Palestinian proposed the “Red Sea Dead Sea water conveyor (RSDSWC)” project which aim at connecting the Dead Sea and the Red Sea by making 1 110 miles canal between 2 water body. Please see the graph below to visualize the ongoing project.
Graph1. Graph of the ongoing “Red Sea Dead Sea water conveyor (RSDSWC)” project
According to the water minister of the Jordan, The government in Jordan has finally given permission for one of biggest projects in the Middle East. The project will produce millions liters of fresh water for Jordan, Israel and Palestine. The government of Jordan will select construction contractor on April 2015. The construction of the project will take place by the end of 2015. 3
The three goal of the “Red Sea Dead Sea water conveyor (RSDSWC)” project are :
• “To save the Dead Sea from environmental degradation”
• “To desalinate water and/or generate hydroelectricity at affordable prices in Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian Authority”
• “To build a symbol of peace in the Middle East
2. Water balance and demand projection:
2.1 Detailed water balance:
The water level in the Dead Sea has been decreasing since 1930 and is still rapidly decreasing. Today, the water level is shrinking about 1 meter per year and has already decreased around 30 meters since 1970. From the surface area perspective, the surface area of the Dead sea surface area has fallen from 960 sq2.km to 620 sq2.km which is about one third of decreasing. Nowadays, the water level of the Dead Sea is decreasing at about 2 billion gallon a year. The shoreline is shrinking about 4 feet per year. The groundwater in the nearly surrounding area is also drying up. In the past 50 years ,...