This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Relationship Between Genetic Susceptibility, Obseisty And Type 2 Diabetes

1408 words - 6 pages

Relationship between genetic susceptibility, obesity and the development of type 2 diabetes

In this assignment I will focus on the relationship between genetic susceptibility, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is caused predominantly by the autoimmune destruction of the insulin- producing β-cells of the pancreatic islets, whilst type 2 diabetes results from both impaired insulin secretion and resistance to the action of insulin (Dougherty and Lister, 2011). Diabetes is a major global health problem and in 2010 was estimated to affect 285 million individuals worldwide. This figure is projected to rise to more than 400 million over the next two decades as a result of changing population demographics, such as ageing and urbanization, and changes in lifestyle, such as diet and exercise, and the associated increase in obesity (Holt and Hanley, 2012)

Epidemiology is the study of patterns, causes and effects of disease in a population. Type 2 diabetes is more common in developed countries. (Fehily, 1999). The population of obese individuals has gone up rapidly every year (Knight, 1984). During the past few decades, diabetes has gone up in many parts of the world and this is associated with increasing obesity (Fehily, 1999).

Obesity is a condition of being overweight and is defined clinically by a body mass index (BMI). (Prentice and Jebb, 2003). Body mass index is the weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared (NHS choices, 2012). The desirable BMI is in the range of 18.5 – 24.9, overweight is 25 – 29.9 clinically obese is 30 – 35.9 and morbidity obese is 36.0 and over (World Health Organization, 1998).

The massive explosion in obesity rates worldwide has largely been responsible for the increase in diabetes. It is estimated that up to 80% of new cases of diabetes can be attributed to obesity. In the UK, the BMI of a person with type 2 diabetes is 30.0 kg/m2 , whilst in the USA 67% of those with type 2 diabetes have a BMI of greater than 27 kg/m2 and 46% have a BMI greater than 30 km/m2 (Holt and Hanley, 2012). The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases across the whole range of BMI, so that the risk in a middle-aged woman whose BMI is greater than 35 kg/m2 is 93.2 times greater than in a woman whose BMI is less than 22.5 kg/m2. Similar changes are seen in men.

In addition to adiposity, the distribution of fat is also important. For any given level of obesity, the more visceral fat an individual has, the greater their risk of developing diabetes. This is reflected clinically by a waist measurement. For men, waist circumference of less than 94 cm is low, 94–102 cm is high and more than 102 cm is very high. For women, waist circumference of less than 80 cm is low, 80–88 cm is high and more than 88 cm is very high (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2006).

The most important environmental factors for diabetes are obesity and physical inactivity. The striking increase in the prevalence of obesity...

Find Another Essay On The Relationship Between Genetic Susceptibility, Obseisty and Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Type 2 Essay

731 words - 3 pages Australia's reason for being. 3. The symptoms come on gradually but many people with type 2 diabetes symptoms are diagnosed after a blood glucose test. The Symptoms include: · Feeling tired · Passing urine frequently · Feeling constantly thirsty · Blurred vision · Itching of the skin or genital area · Slow healing infections · Numbness and tingling in hands or feet · Weight loss

Type 2 Diabetes Essay

855 words - 4 pages People need to be more responsible about their yearly physicals because of the increased death in today’s society due to type 2 diabetes. People think that when they get sick, they can just do the home remedies, instead of actual going to see a doctor. I am here to tell you to stop what you are doing and let me explain the seriousness of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has a lot of other health issues with it including heart, kidney, eyes

Diabetes Type 2

1249 words - 5 pages Module 6 Homework questions for this week Your written answers to the questions below are to be available to be sighted by your lecturer (not submitted to the School Office) at the start of the tutorial session. To be recorded as attending the tutorial requires that the lecturer deems that the worksheet has been satisfactorily attempted. 1 A person with type 2 diabetes may be treated with insulin as well as an oral hyperglycaemic drug

Heavy Processed Meats And Type 2 Diabetes

565 words - 3 pages Diabetes is a common disease in many Americans. Latest studies show that eating heavyprocessed meats leads to type 2 diabetes. Should the society completely stop eating these meats,or just not eat as much? We must cut down the eating of these processed meats in our society.This study was pointed at men between the age of 40 to 75 who often ate processed meats.Dr. Hu studied 42,504 men who were healthy and between the age of 40 to 75 that

Type 2 Diabetes: An Epidemic

1651 words - 7 pages avoided by keeping a healthy lifestyle and getting screened, especially if diabetes is common in one’s family. Through these methods, one can make sure that one’s diabetes doesn’t go uncovered. Works Cited “Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.” nature.com. 2013. Nature Medicine. 12 May 2014.

Type 2 Diabetes Research Paper

3791 words - 15 pages related to those with type 2 diabetes in Merced County, we can hope to improve the overall health of those with the disease, and slow or prevent others with a predisposition to diabetes. Literature Review The overabundance of literature and research regarding type 2 diabetes reveals a significant relationship between the disease and a person’s behavioral and lifestyle choices. While researchers don’t know why some individuals develop diabetes and

Overweight and Obesity (Type 2 Diabetes) - Biology - Research paper

1827 words - 8 pages (ABS) and the similarity between obesity and type 2 diabetes is shockingly strong. )http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4364.0.55.001~2014-15~Main%20Features~Diabetes%20mellitus~12) The recommended dietary intake (RDI), "Are levels of intake of essential nutrients that adequately meet the nutritional needs of practically all healthy people.” (healthyfoodguide.com) Listed above you will find Australia’s RDI and daily

Type 2 Diabetes, Health and HD assessment - Health and Hd - Brochure

872 words - 4 pages How can I prevent developing Type 2 Diabetes? 1. Maintaining a healthy body weight: Obesity is one of the most common factors linked to type 2 Diabetes, so regular physical activity will help maintain a healthy body weight, sliming the chances of developing type 2 Diabetes. 2. Making health food choices: Cancelling out fatty fast food and eating in correct proportions and moderation is key! 3. Maintaining blood pressure: Eating healthy and

Gender Difference in Albuminuria and Ischemic Heart Disease in Type 2 Diabetes

1426 words - 6 pages such as dyslipidemia and albuminuria." Which is why this study aim to "examine the value of albuminuria in the prediction of ischemic heart disease in men and women with type 2 diabetes." (Nakhjavani, M. et al, 2012 p.52). Theoretical framework and hypotheses The rationale for the theoretical framework is stated by the researchers for this study by discussing the possible relationship between albuminuria and ischemic heart disease in the

Poster content about type 2 diabetes mellitus in women age between 30 to 40 years old - Nursing - Assignment

1254 words - 6 pages Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease characterised by insulin resistance or deficiency causing chronically high blood glucose levels.1 T2D is accountable for 85-90% of all diabetes cases and other serious health complications including cardiovascular disease, blindness, kidney failure, amputation and death.2 T2D can be caused by genetic disposition or more commonly, poor lifestyle choices. People that adopt a sedentary lifestyle are at a greater

The author of this essay will be discussing a patient with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

3083 words - 12 pages IntroductionThe author of this essay will be discussing a patient with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and will also be discussing the nursing care that will be received by the patient following a hypoglycaemic attack.The patient being described is a fictitious seventy year old lady called Mabel Gordon; she lives in a flat in a city centre with her husband Bert. Mabel has had type 2 diabetes for years which has been poorly controlled by medication and

Similar Essays

Relationship Between Genetic Susceptibility, Obesity And The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes

1647 words - 7 pages (Health Social Care Information Centre, 2014). This shows that an increasing number of the British public are suffering from obesity. GENETIC PREDISPOSITION Ji and Friedman (2007) state that obesity or overweight can be due to rich fat food consumption and is influenced by a genetic predisposition in humans. As explained above, type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by various genetic and ecological factors. Genetic or

Differentiating Between Type 1 And 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1676 words - 7 pages Invokana (Canagliflozin) Introduction Diabetes Mellitus is a disease of the endocrine system primarily differentiated between type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce insulin and was previously seen in the younger generation which is no longer the case.1 Type 2 diabetes is the more prevalent of the two types and involves elevated blood sugar levels due to the insufficient production of insulin. Risk

Obesity And Lifestyle Intervention: The Impact On Type 2 Diabetes

1753 words - 8 pages loss by 58% compared to placebo and 39% compared to metformin. In Look AHEAD study,10 it examined the effect of intensive lifestyle modification on obese, type 2 diabetic people. After a year, those who were given intensive lifestyle modification lost weight up to 8.6% from initial body weight. It is observed11 that a weight loss up to 7% of body weight can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by more than 55%. Physical activity also

Type 2 Diabetes Essay

1482 words - 6 pages relationship between race and diabetes.      Some of the symptoms associated with type II diabetes include polyuria, polyphagia, and polydipsia. At diagnosis, 33 percent of patients have ketonuria, and 5 to 25 percent have ketoacidosis, both of which can be tested for by simple urinalysis (American Diabetes Assoc. 2000). Most patients of T2DM are obese with little to no weight loss, which allows doctors to distinguish them from