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The Relationship Between Resistance, Potential Difference And Current In An Electric Circuit

3065 words - 13 pages

Experiment 1
Aim:
To test the influence that the potential difference will have on the current of an electric circuit.
Investigative Question:
What would the effect of the change in potential difference have on the current of the circuit, if the temperature in the circuit remains constant?
Hypothesis:
By decreasing the resistance in the electric circuit we will be increasing the total potential difference in the circuit and will therefore directly strengthen the current in the circuit. The relationship between potential difference and current strength will be directly proportional.
Variables:
Independent Variable:
Potential difference (V) in the circuit.
Dependent Variable:
The current strength (mA) in the circuit.
Controlled Variable:
The temperature in the circuit is kept constant throughout all tests.
Apparatus:
A circuit board.
6 Crocodile wires.
A light bulb.
An ammeter.
A voltmeter.
A rheostat resistor.
Three 1,5V cells forming a 4.5V battery.

Diagram:

Method:

Safety precautions:
Ensure that the circuit is away from any water.
Ensure that all apparatus being used is in working condition and has its certificate of safety.
Ensure that all wires are insulated as to avoid any short circuitry or electrical burns.
Ensure that all batteries being used are not leaking or damaged (check shelf life of batteries).

Accuracy Precautions:
Ensure batteries are fully charged to ensure accuracy of readings.
Ensure that the ammeter and voltmeter are calibrated accordingly.
Ensure that the rheostat is fully operational.
Ensure that the light bulb is fully operational and the filament is still attached blown before commencing with the experiments.

Experimental Procedure:
Set up experiment as seen in the diagram above leaving one wire unconnected as a type of switch.
Set the rheostat to its first position which will be the first potential difference reading.
Close the switch and take the voltmeter and ammeter readings.
Open the switch.
Tabulate results from the Ammeter and Voltmeter
Set the rheostat to its second position which will be the second potential difference reading.
Close the switch and take the voltmeter and ammeter readings.
Open the switch.
Tabulate results from the Ammeter and Voltmeter
Set the rheostat to its third position which will be the third potential difference reading.
Close the switch and take the voltmeter and ammeter readings.
Open the switch.
Tabulate results from the Ammeter and Voltmeter
Set the rheostat to its fourth position which will be the fourth potential difference reading.
Close the switch and take the voltmeter and ammeter readings.
Open the switch.
Tabulate results from the Ammeter and Voltmeter

Results:

Table Showing Comparison of Results between the Potential Difference and Current Strength in an Electric Circuit

Potential Difference(V) Ammeter Reading (mA) Resistance(Ω)
0.9 160 5.27
1.2 180 8
1.6 210 7.62
2,3 250 9.2

Calculations:
V=IR
R = V/I
...

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