Children, in their early childhood, rely on their attachment relationships for feelings of security. Securely attached children become well adapt at verbalising their needs. For example, a 4-year-old child may say “Please read me a story before you go”, communicating their fear of been left alone. This increased ability to verbalise their wants and needs continue well on into later childhood and adolescence (Hutchision, 2013). According to Bolby (1973), warm and secure attachment experiences promote beliefs that others have good intentions; however persons who grow with insensitive attachment figures may have bouts of dysfunctional behaviour. Armsden (1986) also believed that secure persons in an intrapersonal domain tend to have more positive, integrated and coherent views of their selves than do insecure persons.
There has been a great deal of speculation about how maternal attachment affects all subsequent patters of social behaviour and it is essential that we bring to bear on these speculations all the data we have available (Caldwell, Bettye, Ricciuti, 1973). Although interpersonal attributions and their relationship have been explored extensively (Dodge & Fane, 1982; Gramhan, Hudly & Williams, 1992; Quiggle etal, 1992), the role of such awareness as a link between parent/adolescent attachment and adulterant aggressive behaviour has not been examined systematically (as cited in Simons, Paternite, & Shore, 2001, p. 185).
Statistics show (NICHD, 2004) that children following high development trajectories for aggression are more likely to evolve from lower income families, where mothers tend to be less educated and parents are less sensitive and responsive. These parents may often be overwhelmed by a child’s difficult temperament and involve in cohesive cycles, responding harshly to demands at first, and then giving in easily. Patterson (1982) tells us that these cohesive cycles predict aggression and social behaviour in adolescents. Moreover these cycles may progress into uncertainty in relationships in early adulthood.
In this study we will examine the attachment related bond that participants have in their current life and do a comparative assessment of their indirect aggression. The alternative hypothesis (H1) presented is that there will be a significant difference between secure attachment and aggressive behaviours. Therefore the null hypothesis (H0) is that there is no significant difference between secure attachment and indirect aggression.
There were 40 participants in this study, 12 male and 28 female; ages ranged from 17-33 (mean 19.15) (SD 2.68).
2 online questionnaires were used; Experiences in close relationships-Revised Questionnaire (ERC-R; Fraley, Walker, & Brennan, 2000) and Indirect Aggression Scale, Aggressor Version (IAS-A; Forrest, & Shelvin, 2005).
The ERC-R questionnaire measured secure attachment and contained 36 questions with two subscales; items 1-18...