The Relationship Between Stress, Depression, And Cognitive Functioning

2149 words - 9 pages

Stress is known to be one of the major causal factors of depression (Kendler, Karkowski, & Prescott, 1999). Large stressors in life, such as divorce or death in the family, are all known to be related to the development of depression in people (Kendler et al., 1999). Such traumatic, sudden events can place acute stress on a person that can lead to problems such as depression. However, equally as stressful to people is chronic stress - not as stressful as major stressors, but still pervasive enough day-to-day to contribute to an overall drop in positive affect. Although depression is often referred to as the “common cold” of psychology, it can still be a dangerous condition, particularly due to the increase of suicidal ideation that can occur in some people with depression. For this reason, research is constantly seeking to understand the condition better. Since much truly experimental research on humans with depression would constitute a breach of ethics, most research in this area focuses on animals. The study conducted by Henningson et al. that is the subject of this paper utilized rats to study the effects of depression due to chronic stress on cognitive performance.
As it is impossible for rats to indicate in the same way as humans that they are depressed, a model to mimic the development and progression was developed by researchers in the 1980s. Called the chronic mild stress model (CMS model), rats or mice are exposed to mild stressors for a number of weeks (anywhere from one to seven) and their intake of a particular sucrose solution is monitored. Decrease in sucrose consumption or preference is thought to reflect a decrease in sensitivity for rewards (Willner, 2005), a classic example of anhedonia, which is a common symptom of depression on a larger scale. The decreased sucrose consumption equating to decreasing sensitivity to rewards was supported by research showing the same decrease in the rewarding properties of food pellets and amphetamine (Papp, Willner, & Muscat, 1991). Using the chronic stress model, researchers can apply stress to animals and study anhedonia, depression, and its effects on the brain as well as testing the efficacy of antidepressants on various facets of depression.
The present study used the CMS model to induce anhedonia in rats in order to study the cognitive deficits associated with depression. There is strong evidence to suggest that cognitive impairment is a major component of depression (Cohen, Lohr, Paul & Boland, 2001). Cognitive impairment in mice and rats exposed to CMS has been demonstrated through a number of behavioural measures (see Edgar et al., 2002; Edgar et al., 2003; Garcia et al., 2008). This study by Henningsen et al. sought to further investigate the cognitive abilities of rats exposed to CMS. Four different behavioural tasks were used to assess cognitive functioning: the spontaneous alternation behaviour (SAB) task addressed working memory function; the step-down passive avoidance...

Find Another Essay On The Relationship Between Stress, Depression, and Cognitive Functioning

developmental relations between cognitive vulnerability, life events, and family stress

1744 words - 7 pages child, which begs the question: when may depression first emerge in childhood? And can the development of cognitive vulnerability create stress in the family, creating a reciprocal relationship between parent and child? The family stress model The purpose of family stress theory is to explain how families respond to a crisis or event, and the family stress model does just this. A crisis is a stressful event (A), which is neither positive nor

Relationship Between Time Management and Stress Management, A Survey

1861 words - 8 pages Relation between time management and stress management. Time management and stress management are closely related. Good time management helps to manage stress and lower it. Both can be measured by answering a simple questionnaire. It can be anonymous to give delegates the chance to answer the questions without any fear of being victimized if they use their name. I have produced a simple questionnaire where I focused on key questions, which

An Investigation into the Relationship between Anxiety and Depression among University Students

1645 words - 7 pages hopelessness and inadequacy, typically accompanied by a lack of energy and interest in life”. Brendel (2008) highlighted, the relationship between anxiety and depression is a very close as the symptoms of anxiety disorders often overlap with depression. Furthermore, individuals with major depression are usually treated for an anxiety disorder, and major depression can lead to anxiety and conversely, anxiety can lead to major depression hence the strong

The Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Mothers With Postpartum Depression Compared To Mothers Without PPD

1985 words - 8 pages The study by Posmontier (2008) examines the relationship between sleep quality and mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) compared to mothers who do not have PPD. This research paper will review and critique various sections of the study. Study Question Postmontier (2008) clearly states two research questions along with what the researcher is looking to obtain from the data received. The first research question compares sleep quality

Cannabis and Cognitive Functioning

1599 words - 7 pages Cannabis and Cognitive Functioning Andrew McKeever Bucknell University Cannabis and Cognitive Functioning The debate concerning recreational and medical use of cannabis has historically been incredibly controversial and its popularity is increasing. Many claim that there are no downsides to its use, often falling back on the “alcohol is worse for you” argument, while those who oppose its use say otherwise. In 2013, the

Biceps and Body Image: The Relationship Between Muscularity and Self-Esteem, Depression, and Eating Disorder Symptoms

576 words - 2 pages Promoting the Mental Health of Immigrants 1Running Head: PROMOTING THE MENATL HEALTH OF IMMIGRANTSPromoting the Mental Health ofImmigrants: A Multicultural/SocialJustice PerspectiveManuel TuveriIndiana Wesleyan UniversityPromoting the Mental Health of Immigrants 2AbstractThe latest statistics show that immigration in the United States is rapidly increasing and that 1 out of every 10 people comes from an immigrant or refugee background.This

Physical Exercise and Cognitive Functioning in Children

2033 words - 9 pages The purpose of this study is to look at if physical exercise will help the healthy cognitive development in children and adolescence and this paper will illustrate that the same facts are true for children and adolescence, and will stress the importance of exercise for children optimal brain development and growth. The current studies show that physical activity has a positive effect on attention, neuroplasticity and intellectual development in

The Relationship of Drug Abuse and Depression

700 words - 3 pages What is the relationship between drug abuse and depression? It has become a very common practice in cultures the use of drugs, especially alcohol, for various purposes, from celebrations to sorrows. Drug use, have an effect on those who consume, they tend to feel relief during consumption. However, the abuse of these substances can have negative long-term effects for human health, including a strong addiction that ends in severe cases of

Depression and Relationship Study

1153 words - 5 pages Kenneth Jaffe.This study focuses on the idea that the type of care received in childhood, positive or negative, has a great effect on relationship functioning later in adulthood. But there are two links between child-rearing and relationship functioning: attachment style and depression. Both derive from the type of care received in childhood and affect relationship functioning, and both exert a reciprocal influence on each other in adulthood. The

The Effects of Thinking on Human Stress and Depression

897 words - 4 pages . Whereas, opponents of assisted suicide and abortion believe that both situations qualify as murder. This differentiation between what is perceived as good or bad also applies more frequently on a smaller scale, to the associations we form about the events that happen to us in every day life, and has profound implications about stress and depression. Charleton (1992) provides a useful definition of stress as a general medical label that is

Stress, Depression and Periodontal Disease

763 words - 3 pages different coping mechanisms and how they can influence the effects and results of Periodontal Therapy. Researchers have gathered enough data to suggest that stress can make the body susceptible to gum disease.Stress, Depression, Cortisol and Periodontal Disease, written by a panel of doctorsAmy E. Rosania, Kathryn G. Low, Cheryl M. McCormick, and David A. Rosania, suggeststhat that Stress and Depression and the release of Cortisol, a hormone

Similar Essays

Analyzing Two Theories On The Relationship Between Stress And Depression

1007 words - 5 pages contrast, stress continuation theory states that the relationship between depression and stress is continued by stress over time. Uliaszek et al. (2012) points out that stress can be described by two additional dimensions. These dimensions include, independent stress refers to anything that is beyond the individual’s control, while dependent stress occurs as a result of the individuals own actions. On the other spectrum, interpersonal stress refers

The Relationship Between Time And Stress Management

2406 words - 10 pages 1 Introduction The purpose of this assignment is to develop an understanding of the best ways to manage yourself taking into consideration a number of factors.  Relationship between time and stress management  Strength and weaknesses of time management and the impact it can have in the workplace.  Causes and symptoms of stress To carry this out successfully I used a number of methods of research and investigations. This involved

Relationship Between Stress And Violence Essay

790 words - 3 pages Missing Works Cited In the article “Stress and Aggression reinforce Each Other at the Biological Level, Creating a Vicious Cycle”, by Menno Kruk, the author demonstrates how there is a direct correlation between stress and violence not only in rats but humans as well. IN an attempt to break the cycle of violence in humans they began with rats and it was discovered that the answer may lie within the nervous system. There appears to be a fast

To Study The Relationship Between Stress And Obesity

1289 words - 5 pages examined the 10,308 civil servants from the Whitehall II study, all of whom were between the ages of 35 and 55. Work stress was assessed by the Job Strain Questionnaire and defined by poor work social support, high job demands, and low job control. Overall, work strain was associated with increased risk of BMI obesity by a maximum odds ratio of 1.73, and of waist obesity by a maximum odds ratio of 1.61. There was a dose-response relationship