Evolution has been arguably one of the largely discussed topics in the advanced institution of science. The theory of evaluation, first presented by Charlies Darwin (1990), states that all biotic organisms were developed and advanced from primitive organisms through gradual changes occurring over time. The relevance of this fundamental theory is witnessed throughout the disciplines of the pathology department in the subject area of biomedical science. Biomedical science consists of seven major disciplines; hematology, transfusion science, clinical chemistry, histology, virology, cytology, immunology and medical microbiology. However, significance of evolutionary theory had a drastic impact mostly on hematology and some virology.
The branch of hematology in biomedical science has a significant effect on society in the modern world. The understanding of several diseases that occur due to the nature of the blood are influenced by the scientific discipline of hematology. These are distinctively visible in the identification of diseases such as blood cancer, anemia and abnormalities of blood coagulation that are detected using hematological tests. Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH), Karyotype Test and Serum Ferritin are a few of the haematological tests that were carried out in biomedical science industry.
Hematology is the study of structure, function and pathological disorders in the blood. Blood consists of 55% plasma and 45% blood cells. Plasma is a mixture of 7% protein, 91% water and 2% other solutes. The types of proteins present in blood are albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen. Other remaining solutes consist of ions, nutrients, gases and respiratory substances and waste products. On the other hand, 250 to 400 thousand platelets, 4.2 to 6.2 million red blood cells and 5000 to 9000 white blood cells make up the total blood cells category. The high number of red blood cells present in blood are appreciated in Haematology; as inherited antigens, present on the surface of the red blood cells conduct the role of markers also, contribute an important role in fighting against infection and diseases.
The history of blood is fundamental while discussing the evolutionary theory in biomedical science. In 1628, William Harvey demonstrated that blood circulates around the body; this was the start of several researches. Further along, in 1666 the first successful blood transfusion carried out on an animal. In addition, several other cases of transfusions occurred during a likely hemorrhage in child birth by DR. James Blundell. However, the application of chemical knowledge into transfusion reaction resulted in Dr. Landsteiner (1900) discovering the three main blood group antigens and its corresponding antibodies on an animal. Antigens are inherited from parental alleles and differentiation of blood group is derived from the constitution of the blood composition of different proteins and sugars. They are found on the red cell surface area and the ABO...