This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Reliability Of Memory Essay

1925 words - 8 pages

According to Sternberg (1999), memory is the extraction of past experiences for information to be used in the present. The retrieval of memory is essential in every aspect of daily life, whether it is for academics, work or social purposes. However, many often take memory for granted and assume that it can be relied on because of how realistic it appears in the mind. This form of memory is also known as flashbulb memory. (Brown and Kulik, 1977). The question of whether our memory is reliably accurate has been shown to have implications in providing precise details of past events. (The British Psychological Association, 2011). In this essay, I would put forth arguments that human memory, in fact, is not completely reliable in providing accurate depictions of our past experiences. Evidence can be seen in the following two studies that support these arguments by examining episodic memory in humans. The first study is by Loftus and Pickrell (1995) who found that memory can be modified by suggestions. The second study is by Naveh-Benjamin and Craik (1995) who found that there is a predisposition for memory to decline with increasing age.
Human memory is highly susceptible to modifications due to the compelling nature of false memories. This causes the recollection of events to be different from the way they happened or to be non-existent. (Roediger, Jacoby and McDermott, 1996). The first study by Loftus and Pickrell (1995) was to understand and determine if human’s episodic memory, which is the recollection of past events in their thoughts and feelings at that point of time, could be modified by suggestive information. (Wheeler, Stuss and Tulving, 1997). The independent variables were the types of information (3 true and 1 false) given to the subjects in the booklet. The dependent variables were the memory recall during the interviews, clarity ratings of the memory and confidence ratings in the ability to recall more detail if given more time. The subjects involved 3 males and 21 females, ranging in age from 18 to 53. They were selected based on their relative member having a good knowledge about their childhood experiences.

Subjects were given a booklet containing brief descriptions of 3 true events and 1 false event that supposedly occurred when they were 4 to 6 years old. These were based on information provided by the relative and subjects were instructed to record what they could remember. Following which, 2 consecutive interviews were held around 2 weeks apart, and the subjects were asked to rate their clarity and confidence ratings on a scale of 1-10 and 1-5 respectively.
Results showed that 29% of the subjects “remembered” the false event, whether it is partially or completely when they first read the booklet. During the subsequent 2 interviews, 25% of the subjects insisted that they “remembered” the false event. Moreover, the mean clarity rating for the false memory increased from 2.8 to 3.6 respectively for the first and second interview....

Find Another Essay On The Reliability of Memory

Structural Reliability for the Design of Exceptional Structures

1519 words - 7 pages wind turbulence; Cable-stayed bridges; Vibration when more than the fundamental mode must be taken into consideration. Objective of the thesis The aim of this research is to find a methodology for the design of exceptional structures which achieve an adequate and homogeneous level of reliability in a cost efficient manner. Structures will have to resist during a lifetime of 25 to 100 years to the effects of various actions with proper safety

The Multistore Model of Memory Essay

826 words - 3 pages The Multistore Model of Memory The multistore model is a representation of memory based on having more than one different kind of store for remembered information. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) proposed this model based on evidence related to the separate stores of memory (e.g. serial position: primacy recency, forgetting etc.). It suggests that memory comprises of three separate stores, the sensory memory

The Fickle Voice of Memory

893 words - 4 pages loses self-awareness” (Chappell). This poem seems to give voice to the fickle ways memory is pulled back and forth for a victim of Alzheimer’s. One can feel how hurtful it is for the writer to experience this horrible disease. “Alzheimer’s” is relevant because even though it is a sad poem, there is still love and hope. The wife is welcoming him home, even if he cannot remember her. “Books By Our Editors.”Hollins Critic 34.5 1997

Random Access Memory (RAM): The Genius of Memory

715 words - 3 pages processor can access them quickly.How is this data written to and stored in RAM? In the most common form of RAM, dynamic random access memory (DRAM), transistors (in this case, acting as switches) and a capacitor (as a data storage element) create a memory cell, which represents a single bit of data.Memory cells are etched onto a silicon wafer in a series of columns (bitlines) and rows (wordlines), known as an array. The intersection of a column and

Using Cronbach’s alpha to assess the reliability of a new measure of the British Benefit System

843 words - 4 pages answers therefore limiting the effect it has on the variability of answers (Howitt and Cramer, 2011). Hogan and Cannon (2003) defined reliability as the consistency of a measure regardless of what it’s measuring, which may vary, however validity is based on whether a psychological test is measuring what it’s intending to measure. Reliability and validity will be assessed on the measure used in this report, using Cronbach’s alpha. This removes items

Reliability of Testimonies of the Holocaust Survivors: Elie Wiesel's Night and Binjamin Wilkomirski's 'Fragments'

3334 words - 13 pages generally perceived, was not a witness and his text exploits the literary form of survivor testimony and genuine memory. The role his memory plays in the text is completely detached from the events in the death camps.The role of the witness when applied to the Holocaust takes on a special significance, since it is only the survivors who can give a true account of the atrocities which took place. The vast majority of textual evidence relating to

Reliability and convergent validity of the Cleanliness Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Scale

691 words - 3 pages Riyadh High School, on 6th January, 2014 among 20 health care professionals and school teachers; 11 of them were males and nine were females. Then the same questionnaire was distributed to the same responders on 13 January,2014; the test-retest reliability of this scale was excellent and statistically significant, r=. 98, p

The Memory Theories of Levels of Processing

1439 words - 6 pages This research tests the memory theories of levels of processing proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972) and encoding specificity presented by Wiseman and Tulving (1976). Craik and Lockhart (1972) assert that stimuli that are semantically related are encoded more deeply than stimuli that are related physically. Wiseman and Tulving (1976) state that encoded information must be retrieved in the same way in which it was encoded. These two theories

the effect of sleep on memory

696 words - 3 pages The Effect Of Sleep On Face Recognition Memory Sleep serves multiple purposes, ranging from restoring energy to maintaining homeostasis. Recent research has also shown that sleep plays a crucial role in memory consolidation (Scullin, 2013). There are two main types of long-term memory: explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (procedural) memory. Declarative memory is responsible for learning facts, events, and memories that can be

The Different Types of Memory Devices

2561 words - 10 pages The Different Types of Memory Devices This technical report will look at various different memory devices and how they are implemented in a standard computer system. Internal memory devices such as ROM, PROM, RAM, SRAM, DRAM, SIMM and DIMM will be looked at in order to give a clear idea of how each one operates, and external devices such as memory sticks will also be touched upon. Each of these devices uses different

The Neurobiology of Memory and Aging

1701 words - 7 pages The Neurobiology of Memory and Aging "I lost my keys again," my mother exclaimed at dinner a few nights ago, "I really am getting old." This use of old age as a justification for memory deficits is extremely common. Many people relate old age with loss of memory and other neurobiological functions. Why is it that aging seems to go hand in hand with losing and forgetting things? Is there a neurobiological explanation for this phenomenon

Similar Essays

The Reliability Of Nick Carraway Essay

1029 words - 4 pages The reliability of Nick CarrawayThe story of The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is about a man, named Nick Carraway, who moved to Long Island's North Shore to work as a government corporate-bond trader at Wall Street. He is the neighbor of a very wealthy and popular man, named Jay Gatsby-who is deeply and hopelessly in love with Nick's second cousin, Daisy. She is already married and has a family with Tom Buchanan-a famous polo player. The

Discusses The Reliability Of Specific Narrators

2467 words - 10 pages Discuss the reliability or otherwise of specific narrators employed in the texts that you have studied on this module. When discussing the reliability of specific narrators within a text there is a need to look at the consistency of the narrators and also their trustworthiness. It is also important to assess how the author has used the narrators within a novel and to what extent this use has on a readers view of reliability. The novels Heart

The Use Of Memory Essay

1074 words - 4 pages The Use of Memory Memory is the vital tool in learning and thinking . We all use memory in our everyday lives. Think about the first time you ever tied your shoe laces or rode a bike; those are all forms of memory , long term or short. If you do not remember anything from the past , you would never learn; thus unable to process. Without memory you would simply be exposed to new and unfamiliar things . Life would be absent and bare

The Structure Of Memory Essay

1799 words - 7 pages Introduction Prior research into the structure of memory have suggested that memory is comprised up from three separate stores each performing a specific and relatively inflexible function (in Passer, Smith, Holt, Bremner, Sutherland, & Vliek, 2009). That is the multi-store model, developed by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968 in Passer et al., 2009) who claim a sensory memory store, short-term memory store (STM) and a long-term memory store (LTM