This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Removal And Re Introduction Of An Apex Predator (Canis Lupus) In The Yellowstone Region

722 words - 3 pages

The Gray Wolf (Canis Lupus) is an apex predator, which free ranged the deciduous, coniferous, and boreal forest of North America and Canada, since the 1700’s (National Park Service 2013). Unfortunately, European settlers began occupying much of the land that gray wolves habited (Weiss et al. 2007). By the latter half of the 1800’s, a full scale war was waged against the gray wolf (Perry 2012). This was attributed to European settlers over hunting bison, which at the time was one of the wolves primary food sources (Perry 2012). According to Perry (2012), the wolves began relying on game species and rancher’s livestock to sustain their diet. This led to extensive predator control by ranchers, ...view middle of the document...

According to Ripple and Beschta (2011), the removal of wolves from Yellowstone resulted in excessive overgrazing by large amounts of ungulate or hoofed species, such as: elk, moose, mule deer, bison, and antelope. It also led to a decline in various types of vegetation and animals, from the resulting shift in the trophic cascade process. It changed from top down consumer driven, to bottom up producer driven (Eisenberg et al. 2013). Trophic cascade is essentially a change in the food chain, which results in positive or negative impact on the various trophic levels (Krebs 2009). In a study conducted by Eisenberg et al. (2013), proposed that bottom up affects usually succeed in the event that an apex species is removed from a system. It results in an event called the trophic trickle. Furthermore, the removal of lower trophic levels results in the complete failure of a system (Eisenberg et al. 2013)
According to Millspaugh et al. (2010), the re-introduction of the gray wolf into YNP, has contributed to greater biodiversity within the region. The resulting presence of the gray wolf has shifted the trophic cascade back to a top...

Find Another Essay On The Removal and Re-Introduction of an Apex Predator (Canis Lupus) in the Yellowstone Region

Climate Reconstruction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

1633 words - 7 pages second scholarly research article we will examine is Holocene Beaver Damming, Fluvial Geomorphology, and Climate in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Authors Lyman Persico and Grant Meyer conduct a study in northern portions of Yellowstone National Park along stream systems in an effort to research and hypothesize about the relationships between beaver habitat and damming and the possible connections between climatic conditions, stream

The Yellowstone National Park Wildfire of 1988

1035 words - 4 pages For everyone involved in the Yellowstone fires, there is a particular day that stands out above the rest. For Carol Shively, interpretive ranger, it was July 31st; the day the fire hit West Thumb. “We headed into the geyser basin to clear visitors, but some were reluctant to leave—they were captivated by the mushroom- like clouds of smoke rising to the north, the helicopters dipping low to fill their water buckets in the lake, and the

The Yellowstone Wolf Controversy

1463 words - 6 pages were long gone before that (Timber, 1998). In 1974 the Fish and Wildlife Service started the Grey Wolf reintroduction plan. With this plan they decided on three areas in which to reintroduce wolves; Northwest Montana, the Yellowstone Ecosystem, and Central Idaho. In 1987 they released another plan that was more detailed than the first few. The recovery goal for the Grey Wolf was ten breeding pairs per area, which meant ten packs of ten wolves

The Holocaust and Native American Removal: Acts of Rebellion, Social Issues, and Methods of Removal

883 words - 4 pages final way of differentiation was their leaders, for example, the Holocaust was led by Hitler. While the former controlled that particular genocide, according to an article in understandingrace.org by the American Anthropological Association, General Scott led the attack on the Indians. The Holocaust and Indian Removal are unalike in these three ways. The Holocaust and Indian Removal were two very violent and cruel genocides. Both claimed countless

The Removal of the Cherokee

5732 words - 23 pages Montgomery Pike and Lieutenant James B. Wilkinson on an expedition to explore the western regions of the Arkansas River to evaluate the area for settlement. Jefferson however lost interest in helping solve the Indian problem when international pressures caused by the British and French arose; thus, Indian removal was postponed. In 1816, Andrew Jackson, then a United States General and Indian Commissioner, started negotiations to see if the whole

How the Ocean and Plants Affect the Removal of Carbon in Our Atmosphere

2013 words - 8 pages am going to look at is how the ocean and plants affect the removal of carbon in our atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis, and how the carbon is added back to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is the chemical process of plants, and some bacteria, both on land and in the ocean, that take carbon dioxide (CO²) from the air and using the light from the sun to create glucose, their

Predator/Prey relationships. In depth view of predator prey relationships. Covers mutualism, defense mechanisms, and coevolution

4222 words - 17 pages In depth view of predator prey relationships. Covers mutualism, defense mechanisms, and coevolution. Good paper, needs grammatical workThe relationship between predators and their prey is an intricate and complicated relationship; covering a great area of scientific knowledge. This paper will examine the different relationships between predator and prey; focusing on the symbiotic relations between organisms, the wide range of defense mechanisms

Settlers and Differences in the New England and Chesapeake Region of the US

845 words - 4 pages were both greatly inhabited by people of English origin, the two groups varied in their political views, geographic locations and social beliefs; but, most importantly, the two regions varied in their religious emphasis and economic motives, which significantly aided in shaping theses regions independent of one another in the new. Both the New England and Chesapeake regions contrasted greatly in their religious emphasis. The New England Region

The Ethics of Divorce and Re-Marriage

1005 words - 4 pages . The other side of the argument is that should God expect you to stay married to a person you don’t fully love anymore. It would be a lie and a waste staying married to someone who you didn’t want to be with anymore. Another reason for divorce is because of adultery in a marriage. This is just seen as looking at someone else in an inapproiate way and this quite harsh as it is very hard for some people not to look at

Re-Interpreting Internet Activism: A Study of its relationship with the nature of State Introduction

1226 words - 5 pages presence, possibility of rational debate along with reasonable outreach makes cyberspace an ideal tool of advocacy. With the increasing number of protests mobilised through social networks, the Internet is coming to be seen either as a force of liberation or as the new generation’s “cyber-utopia”, creating unfounded optimism and hopes of emancipation. Much research has been conducted on internet activism, its effectiveness or ineffectiveness in

Land, Growth, and Justice: The Removal of the Cherokees

1539 words - 7 pages . The Cherokee would be better off giving the land to the Whites and moving westward where it would be safer. Removal of the Cherokee should have been necessary because they were not able to live amongst the Whites due to the existence of rich gold mines and different interests. The discovery of gold on the land that the Cherokee resided on in Georgia resulted in a rush of whites wanting to lay claim to the land. “The existence alone of the rich

Similar Essays

Shark Hunting: The Loss Of An Apex Predator, And The Corruption Of The Ocean Ecosystem

2588 words - 10 pages Shark Hunting: The Loss of an Apex Predator, and the Corruption of the Ocean EcosystemSharks are, without a doubt, one of the world's top predators. With a keen sense of smell, agile tactics and speed, and the ability to devise and recall attack plans, they are highly capable hunters. However, these top hunters now fall among the top hunted. Overfishing is pushing many shark species to the brink of extinction, and this inherent vulnerability is

The Grey Wolf’s, Canis Lupus : Help Stop The Extinction

1596 words - 6 pages Help Stop the Extinction The Grey Wolf’s, Canis Lupus (“Animal Fact Guide”), habitat can currently be found in the tundra, grasslands, forests, and some deserts ("Gray Wolf National Wildlife Federation"). Some areas include northern United States such as Alaska and Montana as well as Canada and some parts of Mexico (“Basic Facts about Gray Wolves”). The wolf mostly resides in these areas in hopes that it can find its prey easily. These animals

The Wonders Of Yellowstone Essay

1238 words - 5 pages the last eruption: “Several years of volcanic winter.” This is when the sun has trouble reaching parts of the Earth, so all year round, it would be freezing. The winter would not stop until the air and atmosphere are clean enough to let light through. “Yellowstone formed 640,000 years ago in an explosion of magma more than 1000 times greater than the Mount St Helens eruption of 1980.” One of the biggest reasons why we are still curious about

The Removal Of An Obstruction Of Justice

990 words - 4 pages the Arkansas National Guard to surround the school in an effort to deny their entry saying, “There is evidence of disorder and threats of disorder which could have but one inevitable result—that is violence, which can lead to injury and the doing of harm to persons and property.” ("Desegregation of Central High School"). Pressure began to mount on President Eisenhower as the nation watched on television the images of the ugly confrontation