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The History Of Turkey Essay

1575 words - 6 pages

Throughout history, the middle east has often been the focus of news reporters. A middle eastern country that has not been exempt from this, is Turkey. Turkey has not only been a focus, but it also has had a very long, complicated history.

The history of turkey is a very long and detailed one. Turkey was originally settled by groups of farmers probably thousands of years ago. Today, historians call these people the Hittites. During their time, the Hittites were ruled by kings, and had their high officials buried in shaft tombs. Shortly after the Hittites moved in, Indo-Europeans moved into the area, and formed the kingdom of the Hittites, with the capital being Hattusa. The kingdom survived for hundreds of years. However environmental changes, migrations of new people, and a weak government ended the kingdom. After the downfall of the Hittite kingdom, Assyrians and Persians conquered the land and settled the kingdom of Lydia. But, this kingdom didn’t last long, as Alexander the Great conquered the Persians in the battle of Issus in 333 BC. to claim the land. In 63 BC., Roman general Pompey conquered the land and it became part of the massive Roman Empire. In 330 AD., Constantine, the emperor of the Roman Empire moved the Empire's capitol from Rome, to the city of Byzantium in modern day Turkey. Byzantium had its name changed to Constantinople when Constantine converted to Christianity. The Roman Empire split in 395 AD., and the Byzantine Empire continued to rule the land. During the early 1000's, the Seljuk Turks became one of the first Islamic peoples to rule in modern Turkey. The Seljuk Turks began to replace the area's Greek language and Christian religion with the Turkish language and the Islamic religion. The Seljuk Empire lasted until 1243, when it was invaded and conquered by the Mongols. Because of internal problems, the Mongol Empire quickly fell apart. This allowed the Turks to continue their influence. During the 1300’s, the Ottomans began to build an empire. By 1453, they captured Constantinople. The Ottomans changed the capital's name from Constantinople to Istanbul. During the 1500's, the Ottoman Empire expanded and reached the height of its power. After this time the empire began to fall apart. During the 1800's, the Ottoman Empire had fallen into such a state of depravity that it became known as "The Sick Man of Europe". In 1829, after losing a war against France, Britain, Russia, and Greece, the Ottomans were forced to give up control of the Danube River.

During the mid to late 1800’s, Turkey lost many pieces of land by losing the war in 1829, and the Russo-Turkish Wars. Turkey lost Algeria and Tunisia to France, and Cyprus and Egypt to the United Kingdom. However, Cyprus and Egypt remained part of the Ottoman Empire until 1914. During the 1890’s a group of students and military officers secretly banded together and opposed Sultan Abdülhamit’s strict policies. The most influential group of these people was the...

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