The Effect of the Cold War on Chile
In the midst of a Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, countries in Latin America find themselves caught in the middle of a Marxist Revolutionary movement and the US counterrevolutionary reaction (Chasteen 285). In order to prevent Latin America from adopting Communist views they created the National Security Doctrine which justifies the attacks of enemies internally and externally, and provides military funding for such acts (Nelson-Pallmeyer 34-35). The National Security Doctrine provoked military action in many Latin American Countries, and had effects on Chile in particular. During the time of the Cold War, Chile democratically elected its first Marxist president which resulted in a violent coup, led by Augusto Pinochet, which aggressively tried to stop the rise of socialism in Chile (Guardiola-Rivera 330-331). Pinochet had viewed the ideas of socialism as dangerous since they were so foreign from the norm of a democracy. What had been a democracy for many years in Chile had now given rise to the Pinochet Dictatorship, and the Popular Unity under Allmende now suffers the torture of a dictating leader trying to turn Chile back into a democracy (Chasteen 301). Throughout the duration of the Cold War period, Chile exhibits the aftermath of the Pinochet Dictatorship after the election of the Marxist president Salvador Allende and the takeover of his office.
In order to understand the effect of the major events that happened in the Cold War in Chile it is also important to understand what each of the main events are as well as when they happened. First, Socialist-Communist Salvador was the first Marxist to democratically win the election in 1970. During Allende’s term of presidency, his main purpose was to lead Chile down a road to socialism in which he wanted to redistribute the wealth in order to help the lower-paid and the poor (Collier and Sater 330). However, this worried the rich because they did not want to lose their wealth since the poor would essentially get their hard earned money. The two opposing leaders wanted to please the majority of people who voted for them by stopping Allende’s socialist ideas from taking place within the government. Allende’s enemies found an ally with the CIA which caused the US to become involved and cut off the credit to Allende’s government (Chasteen 299). Then on September 11th, 1973 Allende was attacked by his own armed forces, and the Chilean Coup started which is the bloodiest takeover in Latin America. Later in 1973, the leader of the Coup, Augusto Pinochet, became the dictator of Chile in order to rid the followers of Allende’s socialist ideas (Chasteen 300-301). Part of what caused this takeover by Pinochet was the many internal factors as to why Allende becoming president caused such an outburst of rage among the elite.
Pinochet accuses Allende for violating the Constitution, and blames the breakdown of democracy on the parties...