The Role Of Cooperation In Anc

1082 words - 4 pages

Worlds of History by Kevin Reilly Response to: From Hominids to Human Beings, From Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman, Women and the Agricultural Revolution, From Hammurabi's Code, From the Upanishads: Karma and Reincarnation, and From the Upanishads: Brahman and Atman Societies of today are very different from the first civilizations. Pre-historic cultures depended on the cooperation of its people to live. Today, however, everyone is dependent on money. Even though the main focus of each story was distinctly different, they all had a similar view on society. They all felt that cooperation was essential to the survival of their community.From Hominids to Human Beings revealed how the people of pre-historic civilizations interacted. Pre-historic man was a forager, a hunter-gatherer. They traveled in bands of about twenty-five people and used only transient camps. "The band, not the nuclear family was the principal social unit." (Matossian, pg 13). Every member of the band worked together to obtain food. The adults taught the children to be responsive to others needs and share the food with the group. Frans de Waal, a researcher at the Yerkes Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Georgia, traced this behavior back to chimpanzees. "Chimpanzee groups consist of caring, sharing individuals who form self-policing networks" (pg 13). Despite this fact, chimps share food only when it is to their advantage and cheat whenever they can get away with it. When the cheaters are identified, food is withheld in the next windfall.Nisa, from From Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman, feels extremely jealous of her newborn brother, Kumsa, and often makes him cry. Nisa felt she wasn't being paid enough attention to and deprived her brother of milk by nursing. Nisa leaves to live with her grandmother after being berated several times for stealing. She thought that was what her mother wanted, but when she returned her parents told her they wanted her to be with them. "Yes, even your mother wanted you and missed you." (Shostak, pg 28). Later in the story, Nisa's father arranges a marriage. At that time women were married when they were still young girls. As a result, they were often scared of their husbands and a woman would sleep between the newly married couple. A woman named Nukha layed between Nisa and Bo to show her that she had nothing to be afraid of. Nukha and Bo would bump in Nisa while making love, but Nisa didn't say anything. She eluded conflict and snuck back to her parents hut. After her parents found out about Nukha and Bo, Nisa stayed with her parents.In Women and the Agricultural Revolution, women encouraged cooperation by gathering food for the people of their band while the men went out to hunt. Cooperation was...

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