The international relations theory of realism represented the why and how the domination by certain powers occurred in the nineteenth century. Control of land during this time was directly proportional to the allocation of wealth among European states. This made the states that controlled the most land the dominate powers, and created the international environment that influenced states interaction with each other. Centuries before, states utilized international diplomacy within power politics that featured their militaries to ensure a national security.
Although anarchy existed, the states attempted to maintain international stability through congresses in three specific instances during this century in order to maintain the balance of power in the world. Because the states retained their individual rights and the ability to leave alliances whenever they wished, a government or other type of international authority did not exist and security dilemmas continued. Fear and distrust created the manner in which the global politics played out, which in turn created a continual contest among the states for one to become the hegemon.
The Congress of Vienna in 1814, which featured Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Britain as the dominate powers known as the Quadruple Alliance, diplomatically decide the fate of France and the nations conquered during the Napoleonic Wars. These larger four nations remained unconcerned over the fact that some small nations became smaller or disappeared from the European map. Their attendance at the Congress of Vienna established their hegemony and increased the land mass they owned or controlled. This meeting of states, which determined the fate of an aggressive one, was the first effort by independent states to set the boundaries of settlement, territorial expansion, and political influence. Their foreign policy decisions continued until the Congress of Verona in 1822.
Since Napoleon’s control of France and conquest of Europe arose from the French Revolution, the members of the Holy Alliance, Prussia, Austria, and Russia, believed in the importance of intervention by larger nations whenever revolution threatened the internal government structure of a state. Since this supported governments that did not keep the best interests of their people in mind, Britain exercised its right as an independent rational actor and withdrew its support of the Quadruple Alliance at the Congress of Verona in 1822.
Although Britain stepped away from the Quadruple Alliance, it entered into a separate alliance with Russia. Russia’s designs on the land that belonged to the Ottoman Empire to resolve a perceived security dilemma went against this treaty. Moreover, Britain previously swore to uphold the Turks’ rights to the region and did not want to see another European power expand its influence into that area. Other nations, such as Catholic France who stood with the Roman Republic, and Austria who remained part of the Holy...