Meaningful communication between two or more individuals rarely leads to 100% agreement between all parties involved. More commonly, there are disagreements on certain points. In a close relationship like a marriage, which is also a partnership; in a strong business relationship; or in a hostage situation, these disagreements must be worked out satisfactorily for both sides in order for the relationship to remain healthy and/or the outcome to be positive. When the parties must reach an agreement or a compromise, one of the best communication strategies is negotiation.
The purpose of this research is to determine how emotional intelligence affects negotiation. Mayer and Salovey, in their early research on emotional intelligence in 1993, identified it as “a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (433). Goleman in 1995 defined emotional intelligence as “the ability to be aware of the emotions of oneself and others, to manage one’s own emotions and how they are expressed, and to manage others’ emotions” (as cited in Kim, Cundiff, & Choi 51). These abilities are ones that have the potential to impact the quality and outcomes of negotiation, which Rubin and Brown defined as “a social process through which two parties or more try to settle what each party shall give and take or perform and receive in order to satisfy their needs” (as cited in Kim, Cundiff, & Choi 50). The specific question to be answered by this research is: What role does emotional intelligence play in negotiation?
The method used for this research is a literature review of articles related to emotional intelligence and negotiation to discover what role prior research shows emotional intelligence playing in negotiation. The influence of emotional intelligence not only on the process of negotiation but also on negotiation outcomes will be researched. The literature review will be conducted using online databases such as Google Scholar, Google Books, and EBSCOhost, which tend to have scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles and books of similar quality.
The research on emotional intelligence as it is related to negotiation was interesting and informative. Pulido-Martos, Lopez-Zafra, and Augusto-Landa cite a number of researchers who identify the fact that emotions are an important component of negotiations (409). In fact, negotiators that understand emotional expression are better equipped to negotiate strategically, and those with the highest emotional intelligence obtain information more quickly, make better and more objective decisions, do a better job of showing their emotions well enough to spark the desired response, and can more easily induce the emotions in their counterparts that they aim to induce (409). In fact, Ogilvie and Carsky determined that the negotiators’ ability to influence their own and...