2. Islamist forces participating in the political processes between 2011and 2013
2.1. The fall of the Muslim Brotherhood
The Islamists’ two-year-old rule was marked by a struggle between them and their liberal opponents and ended with military intervention and the arrest of the first democratically elected president, Mohammed Mursi. However, a seemingly convincing victory of Islamic fundamentalists in the parliamentary and presidential elections a year earlier did not promise such developments. Nevertheless, the analysis the Freedom and Justice Party platform leads us to the conclusion that the accusations against the “Brotherhood” are well founded.
After the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, the political system needed to be reformed, whereas a divided society needed a unifying force. However, the "Muslim Brotherhood", so long in opposition, decided to go in another direction.
First, the government, in fact, did not intend to carry out any reforms before the next parliamentary elections. The leading reason may be a desire to strengthen their position and get carte blanche to make unpopular decisions in the future. However, it seems more logical that the Islamists do not have a strategic vision for the development of Egypt. This might be confirmed by their electoral program, which does not only contain specific steps addressing social and economic problems, but also is no different from those of dozens of other parties. Generic formulations throughout the paper prove that the Islamists have failed to introduce a concept for Egypt’s development. Regarding the economy, in particular, every effort has been limited to foreign visits of M. Mursi with a view to obtaining new loans.
Moreover, wrong decisions were made against the police, army and judiciary. For instance, an interim agreement with the military leadership on "power-sharing" - as evidenced by the new Constitution - was not enough. The "Brothers" believed that having established the control over the security forces and the judiciary, they will be able to oust the army out of politics. However, this did not happen. The conflict with the judiciary, in particular, simply fueled resentment of the Egyptians.
Nor could "Muslim Brotherhood" find a viable approach in relation to other forces, both inside the pro-Islamic block and with the liberal opposition. The "Brothers"’ goal was to gain political benefits from their "moderation" in light of the more conservative Salafis. Nevertheless, the synergy between them was reached whereas a dialogue with the liberals did not start at all. No wonder that instead of integration with a greater number of fractions as well as a broad discussion of various problems, all government decisions were taken by a narrow circle of leaders of the ‘Muslim Brotherhood". For decades, closeness and solidarity of the latter had contributed to the success of its activities. However, after coming to power, this isolation could only damage its reputation reflecting the fact...